Autism Spectrum Disorder exam test bank – PSYCHOLOGY 349W

Autism Spectrum Disorder exam test bank – PSYCHOLOGY 349W
Chapter 6: Autism Spectrum Disorder
Test Bank – Multiple Choice
 

What was the primary difference between Leo Kanner’s observations of children with “early infantile autism” and Hans Asperger’s observations of “autistic psychopathy”?
Only Kanner’s patients showed impairment in language.
Only Asperger’s patients showed difficulties interacting with others.
Only Kanner’s patients were overwhelmingly male.
Only Asperger’s patients displayed an insistence on sameness.

Ans: A
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Learning Objective: LO 6.1. Describe the key features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explain how the disorder exists along a “spectrum.” Show how the prevalence of ASD varies as a function of children’s gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and ethnicity. Autism Spectrum Disorder exam test bank – PSYCHOLOGY 349W
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: What Is Autism Spectrum Disorder?
Difficulty Level: Hard
 

Which is true of language skills in those diagnosed with ASD?
Language skills must be impaired for diagnosis.
If language skills are impaired, children should instead be diagnosed with social/pragmatic communication disorder.
Language skills needn’t be impaired for an ASD diagnosis, and most individuals diagnosed with ASD have unimpaired language skills.
Language skills needn’t be impaired for an ASD diagnosis, though most individuals with ASD have impaired language.

Ans: D
Learning Objective: LO 6.1. Describe the key features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explain how the disorder exists along a “spectrum.” Show how the prevalence of ASD varies as a function of children’s gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and ethnicity.
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: What is Autism Spectrum Disorder?
Difficulty Level: Medium
 

Which of the following is NOT a specific area of deficit in the social communication of children with ASD?
response to feedback and corrections by others
interpersonal relationships
nonverbal communication
social–emotional reciprocity

Ans: A
Learning Objective: LO 6.1. Describe the key features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explain how the disorder exists along a “spectrum.” Show how the prevalence of ASD varies as a function of children’s gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and ethnicity.
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Deficits in Social Communication
Difficulty Level: Easy
 

Which of the following best describes how to reach the optimal outcome for ASD?
Early treatment, ideally before age 3, is more important than intensive intervention in producing the best outcomes.
The best outcomes involve both early treatment, ideally before age 3, and intensive treatment of at least 25 hours a week, with better outcomes for those who receive even more intensive treatment.
After 25 hours of treatment per week, there is no additional advantage seen with more intensive treatment.
Treatment in a group setting provides the best results.

Ans: B
Learning Objective: LO 6.3. Describe several evidenced-based treatments for ASD and differentiate these treatments from interventions that lack empirical support. Provide examples of evidence-based techniques to improve the communication skills of children with ASD.
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: What Interventions Have Limited Empirical Support?
Difficulty Level: Hard
 

Martin is always talking about trains. Even when his mom asks him what he’d like for dinner, he continues talking about train schedules. This is an example of ______.
stereotyped or repetitive behaviors
excessive adherence to routines or resistance to change
restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus
hyper- or hypo-reactivity to sensory input

Ans: C
Learning Objective: LO 6.1. Describe the key features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explain how the disorder exists along a “spectrum.” Show how the prevalence of ASD varies as a function of children’s gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and ethnicity.
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors, Interests, or Activities
Difficulty Level: Medium
 

Hand flapping is ______.
an example of a restricted, fixated interest
a stereotypy
more common among those with ASD who have higher intellectual functioning
present in virtually all individuals with ASD

Ans: B
Learning Objective: LO 6.1. Describe the key features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explain how the disorder exists along a “spectrum.” Show how the prevalence of ASD varies as a function of children’s gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and ethnicity.
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors, Interests, or Activities
Difficulty Level: Medium
 

Which of the following is an example of echolalia?
The TV announcer says, “And now, time for sports.” and Xavier says, “And now, time for sports.”
Xavier spontaneously says to himself, “The big blue ball, the big blue ball” over and over again.
Xavier’s mom says, “What would you like for dinner?” and Xavier says, “You would like chicken nuggets.”
Xavier spends all day standing next to the canyon by his home yelling, “Echo, echo!”

Ans: A
Learning Objective: LO 6.1. Describe the key features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explain how the disorder exists along a “spectrum.” Show how the prevalence of ASD varies as a function of children’s gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and ethnicity.
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors, Interests, or Activities
Difficulty Level: Medium
 

Longitudinal studies of those with ASD have indicated which of the following?
that deficits in social communication tend to precede restricted, repetitive behaviors or interests
that restricted, repetitive behaviors or interests tend to precede deficits in social communication
that deficits in social communication tend to be more long lasting than restricted, repetitive behaviors or interests
that deficits in restricted, repetitive behaviors or interests tend to be more long lasting than deficits in social communication

Ans: A
Learning Objective: LO 6.1. Describe the key features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explain how the disorder exists along a “spectrum.” Show how the prevalence of ASD varies as a function of children’s gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and ethnicity.
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors, Interests, or Activities
Difficulty Level: Medium
 

Which of the following is NOT a specifier for the functioning of children with ASD in the DSM-5?
age at which the disturbance first appeared
medical condition or genetic disorder underlying the condition
severity of each class of symptoms
existence of language impairment

Ans: A
Learning Objective LO 6.1. Describe the key features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explain how the disorder exists along a “spectrum.” Show how the prevalence of ASD varies as a function of children’s gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and ethnicity.
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Specifying Symptoms
Difficulty Level: Hard
 

Which of the following is true of the intellectual abilities of those with ASD?
Almost all of those with ASD have intellectual functioning that qualifies them for a diagnosis of intellectual disability.
Most of those with ASD have IQ scores that are below average, though not necessarily in the range for intellectual disability.
New analyses of those with ASD have indicated very few (less than 25%) have IQ scores below average.
About one-third of individuals with ASD have IQ scores that place them in the range of intellectual disability, about one-third have IQ scores that place them in the average range, and about one-third have IQ scores that place them in the above average range.

Ans: B
Learning Objective LO 6.1. Describe the key features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explain how the disorder exists along a “spectrum.” Show how the prevalence of ASD varies as a function of children’s gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and ethnicity.
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Intellectual Disability
Difficulty Level: Medium
 

A child with autism who says, “You want some water,” instead of “I want some water,” is exhibiting which of the following?
pronoun reversal
third-person self-reference
abnormal prosody
problems with pragmatics

Ans: A
Learning Objective: LO 6.1. Describe the key features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explain how the disorder exists along a “spectrum.” Show how the prevalence of ASD varies as a function of children’s gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and ethnicity.
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: Communication Disorders
Difficulty Level: Easy
 

Which of the following is NOT a component of treatment identified by the Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology as being most likely to yield benefits to children with ASD and their families?
early intervention
naturalistic setting (home if possible)
engagement of parents
monitoring of children’s progress

Ans: B
Learning Objective: LO 6.3. Describe several evidenced-based treatments for ASD and differentiate these treatments from interventions that lack empirical support. Provide examples of evidence-based techniques to improve the communication skills of children with ASD.
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: What Interventions Have Limited Empirical Support?
Difficulty Level: Medium
 

Martha greets Mindy, who has ASD. “Hi, Mindy !” she says. Mindy replies, “That robot was the best one.” This is an example of which of the following?
pronoun reversal
third-person self-reference
abnormal prosody
problems with pragmatics

Ans: D
Learning Objective: LO 6.1. Describe the key features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explain how the disorder exists along a “spectrum.” Show how the prevalence of ASD varies as a function of children’s gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and ethnicity.
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: Communication Disorders
Difficulty Level: Medium
 

If a child does not engage in restricted, repetitive behaviors, he or she ______.
can still be diagnosed with ASD
cannot be diagnosed with any condition
can still be diagnosed with social (pragmatic) communication disorder
should be diagnosed with intellectual disability

Ans: C
Learning Objective: LO 6.1. Describe the key features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explain how the disorder exists along a “spectrum.” Show how the prevalence of ASD varies as a function of children’s gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and ethnicity.
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Communication Disorders
Difficulty Level: Medium
 

Which of the following disorders is most commonly comorbid with ASD?
ADHD
anxiety
obsessive–compulsive disorder
schizophrenia

Ans: A
Learning Objective LO 6.1. Describe the key features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explain how the disorder exists along a “spectrum.” Show how the prevalence of ASD varies as a function of children’s gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and ethnicity.
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Behavioral and Emotional Disorders
Difficulty Level: Easy
 

Which of the following is true of seizures in those with ASD?
They are much less common than in the general population of typically developing individuals.
They are much more common in those with comorbid intellectual disability than in those with ASD alone.
They are much more common in those without comorbid intellectual disability than in those with comorbid intellectual disability.
They are much more common in those with highly developed language than in those who are nonverbal.

Ans: B
Learning Objective: LO 6.1. Describe the key features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explain how the disorder exists along a “spectrum.” Show how the prevalence of ASD varies as a function of children’s gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and ethnicity.
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Medical Problems
Difficulty Level: Medium
 

Which is true of ASD prevalence?
It is reported to be much higher in the United States than in the Middle East.
It is reported to be much higher in Western Europe than in the United States.
It is reported to be about 0.5% in the United States.
It is reported to be about 1.5% to 2% in the United States.

Ans: D
Learning Objective: LO 6.1. Describe the key features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explain how the disorder exists along a “spectrum.” Show how the prevalence of ASD varies as a function of children’s gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and ethnicity.
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Overall Prevalence
Difficulty Level: Medium
 

The increase in ASD prevalence in the last 30 years may be explained by all of the following EXCEPT ______.
greater awareness of ASD has led more youths with symptoms to be referred for diagnosis and treatment
ASD is more prevalent in males and in the last 30 years there have been substantially more male than female babies born
clinicians may be more willing to assign an ASD diagnosis, as it grants access to services
the criteria for ASD are broader now than in the past, and clinicians may be willing to assign the diagnosis even to those who don’t fully meet the criteria

Ans: B
Learning Objective: LO 6.1. Describe the key features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explain how the disorder exists along a “spectrum.” Show how the prevalence of ASD varies as a function of children’s gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and ethnicity.
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Overall Prevalence
Difficulty Level: Easy
 

Visual scene displays are especially useful for which of the following?
individuals with well-developed speech who have relative deficits in visual–spatial processing
older children who have already acquired the use of simple communication systems
toddlers who have trouble using more complex pictures or symbols
infants in the first year of life

Ans: C
Learning Objective: LO 6.3. Describe several evidenced-based treatments for ASD and differentiate these treatments from interventions that lack empirical support. Provide examples of evidence-based techniques to improve the communication skills of children with ASD.
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Speech-Generating Devices
Difficulty Level: Medium
 

One reason described in the text that ASD may be disproportionately diagnosed in males is ______.
high levels of male hormones in utero can affect the developing brain, particularly in the limbic system and frontal cortex, which largely process social information
the X chromosome is protective against ASD, because ASD appears to be an X-linked condition
socialization of females tends toward praise for repetitive behaviors, such as washing dishes and folding clothes; thus, girls who exhibit these repetitive behaviors may not be diagnosed
males with ASD tend to exhibit many more disruptive behaviors than girls with ASD, and so there may be more cause to seek diagnosis and treatment for males suspected of having the disorder

Ans: A
Learning Objective: LO 6.1. Describe the key features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explain how the disorder exists along a “spectrum.” Show how the prevalence of ASD varies as a function of children’s gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and ethnicity.
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Gender, Socioeconomic Status, and Ethnicity
Difficulty Level: Medium
 

Which of the following best explains the prevalence pattern of ASD among different SES groups?
Lower SES groups likely have higher levels of ASD than do higher SES groups because lower SES groups have more exposure to teratogens and less exposure to high-quality nutrition.
Lower SES groups likely have higher levels of ASD than do higher SES groups because lower SES groups tend to have greater rates of intellectual disability overall, which is highly correlated with ASD.
Higher SES groups likely have higher levels of ASD than do lower SES groups because their greater access to healthcare may bring signs and symptoms of ASD to the attention of a health care provider more commonly and early on in life.
Higher SES groups likely have higher levels of ASD because they are more likely to have their children in private school, which has a more liberal definition of ASD than other schools do.

Ans: C
Learning Objective: LO 6.1. Describe the key features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explain how the disorder exists along a “spectrum.” Show how the prevalence of ASD varies as a function of children’s gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and ethnicity.
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Gender, Socioeconomic Status, and Ethnicity
Difficulty Level: Medium
 

Which is true of the differences in ASD prevalence across ethnicities?
When SES is controlled for, differences in ASD prevalence across ethnicities disappear.
White, non-Latino children are more likely to be diagnosed with ASD, even when SES is controlled for.
Latino children are most likely to be diagnosed with ASD across all SES groups.
African American children are more likely to be diagnosed with ASD in the United States, but those of African descent are least likely to be diagnosed in Europe.

Ans: A
Learning Objective: LO 6.1. Describe the key features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explain how the disorder exists along a “spectrum.” Show how the prevalence of ASD varies as a function of children’s gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and ethnicity.
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Gender, Socioeconomic Status, and Ethnicity
Difficulty Level: Hard
 

Which of the following is NOT a finding of prospective studies of infants later diagnosed with ASD?
Eighteen-month-olds later diagnosed with ASD spend less time looking at others’ faces.
Eighteen -month olds later diagnosed with ASD spend less time initiating social interactions with caregivers.
Eighteen -month-olds later diagnosed with ASD often have a hyperactive response to their names.
Young children later diagnosed with ASD show delays in make-believe social play.

Ans: C
Learning Objective: LO 6.2. Identify the genetic, epigenetic, and brain abnormalities associated with ASD in young children. List and describe early deficits in social cognition typically shown by infants and toddlers who are later diagnosed with ASD.
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: What Is the Prognosis for Children With ASD?
Difficulty Level: Easy
 

Which of the following is NOT one of the three primary factors on which prognosis for ASD depends?
number of settings in which the signs and symptoms manifest
intellectual ability
language ability
social engagement

Ans: A
Learning Objective: LO 6.1. Describe the key features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explain how the disorder exists along a “spectrum.” Show how the prevalence of ASD varies as a function of children’s gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and ethnicity.
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: What Is the Prognosis for Children With ASD?
Difficulty Level: Easy
 

Which of the following is NOT true regarding the “refrigerator mother” as a cause for ASD?
It is a theory developed by Bruno Bettelheim.
It suggests that helping parents become warmer toward their children would treat ASD.
It holds that dismissive parenting caused children to turn inward.
It is the dominant causal theory of ASD to this day.

Ans: D
Learning Objective: LO 6.2. Identify the genetic, epigenetic, and brain abnormalities associated with ASD in young children. List and describe early deficits in social cognition typically shown by infants and toddlers who are later diagnosed with ASD.
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Causes
Difficulty Level: Easy
 

Which of the following pieces of evidence LEAST suggests a genetic component in ASD?
the fact that the concordance rate for ASD is higher among dizygotic twins than among siblings
the fact that parents who have a first child with ASD are more likely to have a second child with ASD than the general population of parents is
the fact that monozygotic twins have a higher concordance rate for ASD than dizygotic twins do
the fact that the environment explained 55% of the variance in ASD symptoms

Ans: A
Learning Objective: LO 6.2. Identify the genetic, epigenetic, and brain abnormalities associated with ASD in young children. List and describe early deficits in social cognition typically shown by infants and toddlers who are later diagnosed with ASD.
Cognitive Domain: Analysis
Answer Location: Genetics
Difficulty Level: Hard
 

Which of the following best describes the results of the Autism Genome Project?
The majority of children with ASD have deletions or duplications of genetic material on specific chromosomes.
The majority of children with ASD have a genetic abnormality or mutation on a single portion of one gene.
The majority of children with ASD show the absence of neurexin 1, which produces proteins important to early brain development.
The majority of children with ASD have causes that have not yet been explained.

Ans: D
Learning Objective: LO 6.2. Identify the genetic, epigenetic, and brain abnormalities associated with ASD in young children. List and describe early deficits in social cognition typically shown by infants and toddlers who are later diagnosed with ASD.
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Genetics
Difficulty Level: Medium
 

Which of the following is true of the relationship between parental age and ASD?
Older mothers are more likely to have children with ASD, but paternal age is not associated with increased risk of ASD.
Younger mothers are more likely to have children with ASD, but paternal age is not associated with increased risk of ASD.
Older mothers are more likely to have children with ASD, and younger fathers are more likely to have children with ASD.
Older mothers are more likely to have children with ASD, and older fathers are more likely to have children with ASD as well.

Ans: D
Learning Objective LO 6.2. Identify the genetic, epigenetic, and brain abnormalities associated with ASD in young children. List and describe early deficits in social cognition typically shown by infants and toddlers who are later diagnosed with ASD.
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Epigenetics
Difficulty Level: Medium
 

Which of the following is an epigenetic explanation for the finding that paternal age has been shown to increase children’s risk for ASD?
Older fathers are typically of higher SES, and higher SES is associated with increased risk for ASD.
Spontaneous genetic mutations are more common in the sperm cells of older men.
Environmental stressors over the man’s lifetime could lead to changes in the way genes are expressed.
Older fathers are more likely to have learned about genetics and be more aware about the way their genes affect their children, leading to greater detection of ASD signs and symptoms in their offspring.

Ans: C
Learning Objective: LO 6.2. Identify the genetic, epigenetic, and brain abnormalities associated with ASD in young children. List and describe early deficits in social cognition typically shown by infants and toddlers who are later diagnosed with ASD.
Cognitive Domain: Analysis
Answer Location: Epigenetics
Difficulty Level: Hard
 

Which of the following is true of the effectiveness of Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)?
It may be helpful for reducing challenging behaviors.
It may be helpful for reducing stereotyped behaviors.
It is most effective for older children and adolescents with ASD.
It has not been shown to be more helpful than no communication training at all at reducing challenging or stereotyped behaviors.

Ans: A
Learning Objective: LO 6.3. Describe several evidenced-based treatments for ASD and differentiate these treatments from interventions that lack empirical support. Provide examples of evidence-based techniques to improve the communication skills of children with ASD.
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Picture Exchange Communication System
Difficulty Level: Medium
 

Which of the following best describes the pattern of head growth in children with ASD?
smaller than average head circumference at birth, larger than average head circumference at age 1, smaller than average head circumference by late childhood.
smaller than average head circumference at birth, average head circumference at age 1, larger than average head circumference by late childhood.
larger than average head circumference at birth, average head circumference at age 1, smaller than average head circumference by late childhood.
average head circumference at birth, larger than average head circumference at age 1, average head circumference by late childhood.

Ans: D
Learning Objective: LO 6.2. Identify the genetic, epigenetic, and brain abnormalities associated with ASD in young children. List and describe early deficits in social cognition typically shown by infants and toddlers who are later diagnosed with ASD.
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Synaptic Density and Neural Connections
Difficulty Level: Hard
 

The growth dysregulation hypothesis holds that ______.
ASD is related to too much synaptic pruning in childhood, and too little in adulthood
ASD is related to too little synaptic pruning in childhood, and too much in adulthood
ASD is related to too much synaptic pruning in childhood and adulthood
ASD is related to too little synaptic pruning in childhood and adulthood

Ans: B
Learning Objective: LO 6.2. Identify the genetic, epigenetic, and brain abnormalities associated with ASD in young children. List and describe early deficits in social cognition typically shown by infants and toddlers who are later diagnosed with ASD.
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Synaptic Density and Neural Connections
Difficulty Level: Hard
 

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has revealed which of the following?
The brains of those with ASD tend to show much stronger connections between movement and sensation areas compared to the brains of typically developing individuals.
The brains of those with ASD tend to show much weaker connections between movement and sensation areas compared to the brains of typically developing individuals.
Siblings of those with ASD who went on to develop ASD did not show abnormalities in brain connectivity until after their ASD symptoms manifested.
Siblings of those with ASD who went on to develop ASD showed abnormalities in brain connectivity 6 months before their ASD symptoms manifested.

Ans: D
Learning Objective: LO 6.2. Identify the genetic, epigenetic, and brain abnormalities associated with ASD in young children. List and describe early deficits in social cognition typically shown by infants and toddlers who are later diagnosed with ASD.
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Synaptic Density and Neural Connections
Difficulty Level: Medium
 

Which of the following is NOT a piece of evidence discussed in the text for the role of the amygdala in ASD?
Increasing activity to the amygdala, through electroconvulsive therapy, produces increased sociability in individuals with ASD.
People with ASD showed reduced amygdala activity as they attempted to infer the mental states of others.
People with ASD often show reduced amygdala volume relative to healthy controls.
Humans with damage to the amygdala often display deficits in social understanding that resemble those of high-functioning individuals with ASD.

Ans: A
Learning Objective: LO 6.2. Identify the genetic, epigenetic, and brain abnormalities associated with ASD in young children. List and describe early deficits in social cognition typically shown by infants and toddlers who are later diagnosed with ASD.
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Abnormalities of the Limbic System
Difficulty Level: Medium
 

What is the difference between how typically developing individuals and individuals with ASD process facial information?
Those with ASD take much longer to process faces than typically developing individuals do, preventing them from processing emotions in the time needed to have typical emotional interactions.
Those with ASD process faces in the left fusiform gyrus, the area typically used for processing information about objects, while typically developing individuals process faces in the right fusiform gyrus.
Those with ASD process faces in the right fusiform gyrus, the area typically used for processing information about objects, while typically developing individuals process faces in the left fusiform gyrus.
Those with ASD process faces in the inferior temporal gyrus, the area typically used for processing information about objects, while typically developing individuals process faces in the right fusiform gyrus.

Ans: D
Learning Objective: LO 6.2. Identify the genetic, epigenetic, and brain abnormalities associated with ASD in young children. List and describe early deficits in social cognition typically shown by infants and toddlers who are later diagnosed with ASD.
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Fusiform Gyrus
Difficulty Level: Medium
 

Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) involves a series of line drawings printed on cards that the child presents to caregivers to communicate. Which of the following is NOT true of PECS?
The cards are the aids.
The line drawings are the symbols.
Handing the card to the caregiver is the strategy.
Exchanging a picture–symbol for a desired item or behavior is positive reinforcement.

Ans: C
Learning Objective: LO 6.3. Describe several evidenced-based treatments for ASD and differentiate these treatments from interventions that lack empirical support. Provide examples of evidence-based techniques to improve the communication skills of children with ASD.
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Picture Exchange Communication System
Difficulty Level: Hard
 

What is the evidence that the right fusiform gyrus is important to understanding social interactions in general and not just faces?
Individuals with ASD do not show any activation in the right fusiform gyrus.
Typically developing individuals show activation of the right fusiform gyrus when watching shapes behave in humanlike social ways, such as playing hide and seek.
Typically developing individuals show activation of the right fusiform gyrus when reading stories about social interactions.
Individuals with ASD show activation in the right fusiform gyrus when processing objects that are behaving in humanlike social ways. Autism Spectrum Disorder exam test bank – PSYCHOLOGY 349W

Ans: B
Learning Objective: LO 6.2. Identify the genetic, epigenetic, and brain abnormalities associated with ASD in young children. List and describe early deficits in social cognition typically shown by infants and toddlers who are later diagnosed with ASD.
Cognitive Domain: Analysis
Answer Location: Fusiform Gyrus
Difficulty Level: Hard
 

If researchers show children with ASD faces of their mothers, particularly if these faces have a red dot on the forehead, their activity level in the right fusiform gyrus becomes close to normal. As described in the text, researchers have interpreted this to mean ______.
children with ASD lack the motor control to focus their eyes on the appropriate stimulus
children with ASD have malfunctioning visual processing that prevents them from preferring faces in most cases
children with ASD have a functioning right fusiform gyrus, but ordinarily have deficits in the motivation to engage with social stimuli
children with ASD have less experience with social stimuli, resulting in underdeveloped processing for these stimuli

Ans: C
Learning Objective: LO 6.2. Identify the genetic, epigenetic, and brain abnormalities associated with ASD in young children. List and describe early deficits in social cognition typically shown by infants and toddlers who are later diagnosed with ASD.
Cognitive Domain: Analysis
Answer Location: Fusiform Gyrus
Difficulty Level: Hard
 

Which of the following medications have been approved by the FDA for children with ASD who exhibit sleep problems?
No medications have been approved for treating sleep problems in this population.
natural melatonin
synthetic melatonin
both natural and synthetic melatonin

Ans: A
Learning Objective: LO 6.3. Describe several evidenced-based treatments for ASD and differentiate these treatments from interventions that lack empirical sup

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