Business Ethics MCQs and Answers

Chap 3
16. The three major categories of an ethical framework are:
a. utility, virtue, and values.
b. universal rights, values, and moral principles.
c. universal rights, cultural norms, and morals.
d. consequences, principles, and personal character.
Answer: d
Difficulty: Easy

  1. Which of the following ethical frameworks directs us to decide based on overall consequences of our acts?a. Principle-based ethics
    b. Kantian tradition
    c. Utilitarianism
    d. Virtue ethics
    Answer: c
    Difficulty: Easy
  2. Identify the ethical tradition that directs us to act on the basis of
    moral principles.
    a. Principle-based ethics
    b. Utilitarianism
    c. Virtue ethics
    d. Consequence-based ethics
    Answer: a
    Difficulty: Easy
  3. The study of various character traits that can contribute to, or obstruct, a happy and meaningful human life is part of _____.
    a. Kantian tradition
    b. virtue ethics
    c. principle-based ethics
    d. utilitarianism
    Answer: b
    Difficulty: Easy
  4. Utilitarianism’s fundamental insight is that we should decide what to do by:
    a. considering the moral character of individuals.
    b. following the rules, regardless of consequences.
    c. acting only out of a self-interest.
    d. considering the consequences of our actions.
    Answer: d
    Difficulty: Easy
  5. Utilitarianism has been called a(n):
    a. commonsensical approach to ethics.
    b. behavioral approach to ethics.
    c. consequentialist approach to ethics.
    d. intuitive approach to ethics.
    Answer: c
    Difficulty: Easy
  6. What is the difference between a principle-based framework of ethics and utilitarianism?
    a. Ethics of principles is based on self-interest, whereas utilitarianism is based on human rights.
    b. Ethics of principles is based on human rights, whereas utilitarianism is based on self-interest.
    c. Ethics of principles is based on rules, whereas utilitarianism is based on consequences.
    d. Ethics of principles is based on consequences, whereas utilitarianism is based on rules.
    Answer: c
    Difficulty: Easy
  7. Which of the following traditions is commonly identified with the rule of producing “the greatest good for the greatest number”?
    a. Principle-based
    b. Kantian
    c. Virtue
    d. Utilitarianism
    Answer: d
    Difficulty: Easy
  8. Which of the following principles does utilitarianism emphasize?
    a. Producing the greatest good for the greatest number
    b. Acting only out of self-interest
    c. Ensuring that a fair decision is an impartial decision
    d. Obeying the law and keeping promises
    Answer: a
    Difficulty: Medium
  9. Which of the following traditions would support child labor if it produces better overall consequences than the available alternatives?
    a. Virtue ethics
    b. Deontological ethics
    c. Utilitarianism
    d. Classicism
    Answer: c
    Difficulty: Medium
  10. The utilitarian tradition relies on _____ for deciding on the ethical legitimacy of alternative decisions.
    a. intuition
    b. experience
    c. variable analysis
    d. social sciences
    Answer: d
    Difficulty: Easy
  11. According to the _____, the most efficient economy is structured based on the principles of free market capitalism.
    a. Kantian framework of ethics
    b. principle-based framework of ethics
    c. utilitarian framework of ethics
    d. virtue-based framework of ethics
    Answer: c
    Difficulty: Easy
  12. Which of the following is true of a market version of utilitarianism?
    a. Questions of safety and risk are determined by experts.
    b. Social science determines policies to maximize the overall good.
    c. Individuals calculate for themselves what risks they wish to take.
    d. A government regulator determines the safety standards in the marketplace.
    Answer: c
    Difficulty: Medium
  13. Which of the following would be advocated by the “administrative” version of utilitarianism?
    a. Deregulation of advertising standards
    b. Reliance on free and competitive markets
    c. Risk-taking by consumers
    d. Government regulation of business
    Answer: d
    Difficulty: Easy
  14. How is a market version of utilitarianism different from an administrative version?
    a. The market version ensures that experts establish the safety standards a business is expected to meet.
    b. The market version uses social sciences to predict consequences.
    c. The market version requires a government body to regulate business.
    d. The market version produces those goods that the consumers want.
    Answer: d
    Difficulty: Medium
  15. The essence of utilitarianism is its:
    a. focus on personal character.
    b. reliance on consequences.
    c. focus on principles.
    d. reliance on moral systems.
    Answer: b
    Difficulty: Easy
  16. Which of the following is a problem with utilitarian ethics?
    a. Its need to count, measure, compare, and quantify consequences
    b. Utilitarianism’s focus on the means
    c. The focus on the good of individuals compared to the overall good
    d. The necessity to follow rules with no regard to consequence
    Answer: a
    Difficulty: Medium
  17. Which ethical framework goes against the ethical principle of obeying certain duties or responsibilities, no matter the end result?
    a. Principle-based framework of ethics
    b. Kantian framework of ethics
    c. Virtue ethics framework of ethics
    d. Utilitarian framework of ethics
    Answer: d
    Difficulty: Easy
  18. Which of the following ethical approaches binds us to act or decide in certain ways?
    a. Kantian ethics
    b. Utilitarianism
    c. Virtue ethics
    d. Principle-based ethics
    Answer: d
    Difficulty: Medium
  19. Which of the following statements reflects the approach of a principle-based ethical tradition?
    a. Obey the law
    b. Ends justify the means
    c. Maximize the overall good
    d. Survival of the fittest
    Answer: a
    Difficulty: Medium
  20. Which of the following approaches emphasizes the need to follow legal rules regardless of unfavorable consequences?
    a. Virtue ethics
    b. Utilitarianism
    c. Principle-based
    d. Egoism
    Answer: c
    Difficulty: Easy
  21. “We ought to stop at a red light, even if no cars are coming and I could get to my destination that much sooner.” Identify the ethical approach that follows this line of thought.
    a. Virtue ethics
    b. Utilitarianism
    c. Role ethics
    d. Ethics of principles
    Answer: d
    Difficulty: Medium
  22. _____ ensure the integrity and proper functioning of the economic, legal, or financial systems.
    a. Social functions
    b. Administrative functions
    c. Marketing functions
    d. Gatekeeper functions
    Answer: d
    Difficulty: Easy
  23. No group could function if members were free at all times to decide for themselves what to do and how to act. Which of the following functions to organize and ease relations between individuals?
    a. Autocracy
    b. Self-rule
    c. Social contract
    d. Personal norms
    Answer: c
    Difficulty: Medium
  24. According to Immanuel Kant, there is essentially one fundamental moral duty:
    a. to treat people as objects that exist for our purposes.
    b. to consider the consequence of our actions.
    c. to treat each person as an end in themselves.
    d. to do whatever we choose to do to another person.
    Answer: c
    Difficulty: Easy
  25. A rights-based ethical framework would object to child labor because:
    a. of all the likely consequences of a practice of employing young children in factories.
    b. such practices are a means to production and economic growth.
    c. such practices violate our duty to treat children with respect.
    d. child labor does not produce beneficial consequences.
    Answer: c
    Difficulty: Medium
  26. The concept of moral rights is central to the:
    a. virtue-based ethical tradition.
    b. consequence-based ethical tradition.
    c. behavior-based ethical tradition.
    d. principle-based ethical tradition.
    Answer: d
    Difficulty: Easy
  27. The _____ tradition claims that our fundamental human rights, and the duties that follow from them, are derived from our nature as free and rational beings.
    a. utilitarian
    b. virtue-based
    c. role-based
    d. Kantian
    Answer: d
    Difficulty: Ethics
  28. The Kantian tradition claims that humans do not act only out of instinct and conditioning; they make free choices about how they live their lives, about their own ends. In this sense, humans are said to have a fundamental human right of:
    a. dignity.
    b. rationality.
    c. autonomy.
    d. dependency.
    Answer: c
    Difficulty: Easy
  29. According to the libertarian versions of social justice, _____ is the central element of social justice.
    a. equality
    b. government control
    c. individual liberty
    d. employment
    Answer: c
    Difficulty: easy
  30. Which of the following statements is inferred from Rawls’s theory of justice?
    a. Decisions taken my seniors should be acceptable to everyone.
    b. A decision which is partial is considered an unfair decision.
    c. Each individual in the society should be treated differently.
    d. Rights to liberty depend on the economic status of individuals.
    Answer: b
    Difficulty: easy
  31. Which among the following is a legal right?
    a. The right to select a specific health care package
    b. The right to bargain collectively as part of a union
    c. The right to select a particular pension fund
    d. The right to select the number of paid holidays
    Answer: b
    Difficulty: Easy
  32. Which of the following is true of ethics based on rights?
    a. Rights and duties can be easily defined.
    b. There is no agreement on the scope and range of rights.
    c. Application of theory to real-life situations is easy.
    d. Rights and desires can be easily differentiated.
    Answer: b
    Difficulty: Medium
  33. Which of the following approaches conceives of practical reason in terms of deciding how to act and what to do? a. Utilitarianism
    b. Virtue-based
    c. Kantian
    d. Altruism
    Answer: a
    Difficulty: Easy
  34. What is the difference between virtue ethics and principle-based ethics?
    a. Virtue ethics is based on character traits, whereas principle-based ethics is based on a set of rules.
    b. Virtue ethics is based on the consequences of actions, whereas principle-based ethics is based on character traits.
    c. Virtue ethics is based on set of rules, whereas principle-based ethics is based on consequences of actions.
    d. Virtue ethics is based on producing the greater good, whereas principle-based ethics is based on self-interest.
    Answer: a
    Difficulty: Easy
  35. Which of the following traditions seeks a full and detailed description of those character traits that would constitute a good and full human life?
    a. Kantian ethics
    b. Principle-based ethics
    c. Utilitarianism
    d. Virtue ethics
    Answer: d
    Difficulty: Easy
  36. Identify the view which holds that people act only out of a self-interest.
    a. Altruism
    b. Egoism
    c. Utilitarianism
    d. Libertarianism
    Answer: b
    Difficulty: Easy
  37. Which of the following approaches shifts the focus from questions about what a person should do, to a focus on who that person is?
    a. Altruism
    b. Principle-based
    c. Utilitarianism
    d. Virtue ethics
    Answer: d
    Difficulty: Easy
  38. Virtue ethics emphasizes the more _____ side of our character.
    a. affective
    b. cognitive
    c. conative
    d. intuitive
    Answer: a
    Difficulty: Easy
  39. Which of the following focuses on the concept of business practices and what type of people these practices are creating?
    a. Virtue ethics
    b. Kantian ethics
    c. Utilitarian ethics
    d. Principle-based ethics
    Answer: a
    Difficulty: Easy

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