• Please note that all questions below related to nuclear medicine imaging only, so the answer should be only from nuclear medicine imaging, I will give you resources that may help you.


2- To answer these questions look at the books which I give it to you, if you find another resource online Please write the number of the page and put the link as well of the reference, again it is important to write the number of the pages under each question; for example if you find the answer for questions 1(a, b and c), when you finish write down a, b and c (surname of author, year of publishing, pages).



A lot of radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine are produced in a cyclotron.

  1. a) Briefly describe the basic construction of a cyclotron as well as it’s principle of operation.
  2. b) Give few examples of isotopes produced in the cyclotron (for SPECT and PET) and write down the nuclear reactions which are used in their production.
  3. c) What reactions can be used for the production of iodine 123 ? Which one of these is practically used for production of this isotope for medical use and why?



Question 2

During production of a 99Mo/99mTc generator, 100 GBq of pure molybdenum 99Mo was loaded into the column on November 1-st at 12:00. Immediately after generator’s preparation the first elution was made. Subsequently, the generator was delivered to the hospital and was used clinically for the first time on November 4-th at 9:00.


  1. a) The mass of 99Mo loaded during production.
  2. b) Activity of 99Mo at time of first use in the hospital
  3. c) Activity of 99mTc obtained during this elution
  4. d) Mass of technetium 99mTc in a syringe prepared for patient if activity in it is 500 MBq


Explain, why activity 99mTc obtained in practice will be lower than calculated in c.


Question 3

  1. a) Describe the method of registration of images in positron emission tomography and the construction of the PET-scanner
  2. b) Explain role of the CT scanner in PET-CT imaging device
  3. c) During PET imaging beside true coincidence events another “non-true” events are registered. What are the sources of these events? How do these influence the image? How can we eliminate/minimise these effects?


Question 4.

Describe briefly which physiological process is responsible for the accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical in :

  1. a) 131I uptake in thyroid during hyperthyroidism therapy
  2. b) 99mTc-HMDP (biphsphonate complex) during bone scintigraphy
  3. c) 99mTc – colloid during liver and spleen scintigraphy
  4. d) 18F-FDG during PET


Question 5

Localization of the sentinel lymph node with a method using radioisotope detection is widely used in surgical practice. Please describe :

  1. a) anatomical and physiological basis of this method
  2. b) radiopharmaceutical used in sentinel node procedure
  3. c) intraoperative probe (construction, special requirements for use in theatre)


  1. d) typical indications for this procedure
  2. e) clinical role of this procedure

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