1. What are the major types of primary ambient air pollutants (name 5 and give chemical formulae or symbols for each one).

2a. What is the national air quality goal for lead? (Australia). 2b. What is the national (NEPM) 24 average goal for respirable particulate matter PM10?

3a. What are the health effects of excessive exposure to tropospheric ozone? 3b. What are VOCs? Give 3 examples and describe some of their health effects.

4. Draw a conceptual particulate matter mass distribution diagram showing the bimodal distribution of coarse and fine particles and indicate the PM10 and PM2.5 distributions (plot levels of particulate matter in micrograms per cubic metre ug/m3 of air vs particulate diameter in microns um). Label diagram.

5a. Which one of the nitrogen oxides is a significant greenhouse gas? Give name and formula. 5b. Describe the formation of photochemical smog and secondary pollutants produced.

6a. Describe and give examples of point and non point sources of air pollutants. 6b. What key meteorological factors influence the dispersion and distribution of air emissions within an air shed?

7a. What is the respirable dust fraction of health concern for diesel exhaust particulates for exposed persons living near a major highway? 7b. What are the differences in health risks between exposure to diesel exhausts and exposure to carbon monoxide from vehicle exhausts?

8a. What is the main gas found in coal seam gas? Give name and draw its chemical structure. 8b. Compare the greenhouse gas equivalent of this gas with carbon dioxide gas.

9a. What are PAH’s? Describe and give 3 examples. 9b. Name 4 POPs.

10a. Bioaerosols can be indoor air pollutants in poorly ventilated buildings, particularly in the presence of moisture. What hazardous agents could you expect to find as bioaerosols?

10b. If the half life of carbon monoxide in air inside a room is 4 hours and the concentration in the air is 100ppm, when would you estimate it is safe to renter (give reason/estimate). ……(give units).

11a. What pollution control and management measures would you recommend to reduce PM10 dust emissions in an open cut coal mine?

11b. What air quality management strategies would you introduce or expand on the Gold Coast to significantly reduce diesel exhaust emissions, nitrogen oxides and particulate emissions from vehicles? Consider likely effectiveness. Give 3 strategies in order of priority.

12. Describe the variation of dissolved oxygen levels in surface waters of an estuary due to changes in water temperature, salinity, photosynthesis and respiration processes.

13a. Describe the process and effects of accelerated eutrophication in the western region of Moreton Bay, Queensland.

13b. Describe the process and likely effects of ocean acidification.

14. Calculate the detention volume (m3) required to treat the first flush (25mm of storm water) run off from a 30 Ha site. Assumed a detention period of 10 days i required to reduce nutrient levels to comply with design guidelines. An initial sediment traps should also be included but ignore in this question. The runoff coefficient C is taken to be 0.5.

15. Use Volume 1 of the ANZECC (2000) Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Waters to find: (a) the trigger value for copper in freshwater body that is designed to protect 95% of aquatic species in a modified aquatic ecosystem. (b) the trigger values for total nitrogen and goal phosphorus in a freshwater reservoir or dam in Tropical Australia.

16. Look up the SEQ healthy waterways website www.healthywaterways.org/ and find the Gold Coast on interactive Map or in database. Search and find annual water quality data / graphs for Tallebudgera Creek in 2011. (a) What region of the creek has the lowest median levels of dissolved oxygen saturation (%) below the minimum guideline value of 85%? (b) Briefly describe the general status of median total phosphorus levels in Tallebudgera Creek eg. levels relative to Guideline value and variation as you go up the creek from the Stream mouth. Give examples from graphs in correct units and refer to guideline value.

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