Assignment 1
There are several models and interventions for addressing risk behaviors from different perspectives. Some of these models and interventions address risk behaviors from an individual perspective, whereas some address risk behaviors from a family perspective. Still, some models address risk behaviors from both individual and family perspectives. The effects of these models and interventions are felt at different levels including individual level, organizational level, societal level, family level as well as community level.

The first model is the health belief model, which was developed in the mid twentieth century in order to give more understanding on why people were not able to engage in behaviors, which would have prevented or detected diseases in early stages. This model is mainly based on cognitive theory and operant-conditioning theory. Operant conditioning is based on the notion that frequency of behavior is influenced by the resulting consequences while cognitive theory gives emphasis on the expectations. As such, people will always take an initiative when they perceive certain benefits. People will, therefore, weigh the effectiveness of every action in reducing a perceived health threat. The main strength of this model is that it is easy to apply, and it has been used in many initiatives such as smoking cessation. However, its main weakness is that it is not predictive. In addition, trans-theoretical model is based on the health belief model, and it provides steps that are necessary for moving people from one stage to another in their efforts to change in response to a perceived medical threat (Brug et al., 2005). Trans-theoretical model has been successful in assisting people to change their risk behaviors. However, it has a main weakness in that not all people are motivated to change their risk behaviors, thus making it ineffective. On their own, these models might not be effective, and as such they require certain interventions. These interventions may include clinical interventions and psychosocial interventions. Even though these interventions are useful, they are usually used as the last option when the situation has worsened. Lastly, psychoeducational interventions can also be useful. This form of intervention is family-based, making it easier to administer. However, increased emotions among family members may make it quite ineffective.

Executive Summary
The health belief model has been used extensively in different parts of the world to address risk behaviors among different classes of people. The advantage of this model is that once an individual can perceive and expect certain benefits to arise from his actions, he will be motivated to act in an expected manner. This model has been successful in dealing with sexually risk behaviors among African Immigrants (Asare & Sharma, 2012). In addition, it has also been used among adolescents and children in different parts of the world such as China, to address injury-related risk behaviors (Zhang et al., 2013). It is closely related to the stages-of-change model, through which victims of risk behaviors are guided in order to be able to overcome their risk behaviors. It has been used successfully in addressing smoking challenge among chronic tobacco users. At the same time, when applying both the health belief model and the stages-of-change model, it is necessary to incorporate the ecological models in the program. An example of such models is the Precede/ Proceed Model, which recognizes the effects of the environment on an individual’s behavior (Lohrmann, 2008). A combination of these models has been used successfully to encourage smoking cessation among people from all parts of the world.


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