Discussion: Evidence Synthesis Paper
Discussion: Evidence Synthesis Paper
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In the first part of this assignment we were to make a PICO question and choose three research papers and justify it according to currency, level of evidence ,what makes me to choose these articles and compare and contrast with each paper. now in the second part we have to conduct a critical appraisal for those three papers according to the given questions and assessing the quality of selected articles and synthesising the evidence using the concepts of population health subjects. I have summarised the learning concepts below and I have attached the first assignment as well.
Concepts in each lecture
lecture 1
Understand the difference between screening and diagnosis
Describe the goals for screening
Understand what makes a disease screenable
Evaluate the feasibility of screening
Describe screening programs available in Australia
lecture 2
Appraise the validity of diagnostic evidence
Interpret results from diagnostic studies
Describe sensitivity and specificity
Describe how diagnostic evidence can inform practice
lecture 3
Study validity – potential errors in epidemiological studies
Systematic error
• Selection bias and measurement error
Random error
Critical appraisalWhat makes a good study?
The basics of critical appraisal
lecture 4
Systematic reviews and meta analyses
Isn’t life fine without them – why we need systematic reviews
Assessing the quality of a systematic review
Clinical guidelines
Assessing the quality of guidelines
Assignment 2
Q1 Describe the characteristics of the three papers you selected
What was the exposure or intervention (this should be the same in all three studies)?
What was the outcome (this should be the same in all three studies)?
What were the study designs?
Who were the study population?(Length: ~300 words)
Q2 To what extent can the observed association between the exposure and outcome be attributed to bias and confounding
Are the results likely to be affected by selection and/or measurement bias?
Are the results likely to be affected by confounding?
Are the results likely to be affected by chance variation? (Length: ~500 words)
Q3 Do the findings of the three articles accord with each other?
Are the findings of your three selected studies consistent with each other?
Pay particular attention to the study designs and how they may contribute to your overall synthesis of this evidence (i.e. evidence level)(Length: ~300 words)
Q4. What is the summary of the evidence?
Synthesise the results of the three studies together
Provide a brief summary of the overall results of these studies,ensuring you discuss the results in the context of the strength of the evidence(Length: ~500 words
You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.
Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.
Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.
The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.

Discussion Questions (DQ)

Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, include a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words.
Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source.
One or two sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.
I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.

Weekly Participation

Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately.
In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.
Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work).
Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.

APA Format and Writing Quality

Familiarize yourself with APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required).
Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation.
I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.

Use of Direct Quotes

I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’ level and deduct points accordingly.
As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.
It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.

LopesWrite Policy

For assignments that need to be submitted to LopesWrite, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.
Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.
Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?
Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.

Late Policy

The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.
Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.
If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.
I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.
As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.


Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:

Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.
Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.


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