Discussion: Grounded Phenomenological Theory
Discussion: Grounded Phenomenological Theory
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Grounded and phenomenological theory are the most common approaches to qualitative research utilized by nurses (Nursing Times, 2011).
The term “grounded” means that the theory developed from the research has its roots in the data from which it was derived (Grove, Gray & Burns, 2015). The approach is geared towards describing and explaining the phenomenon under a study. Grounded theory is an inductive technique that emerged from the discipline of sociology. “A social psychologist (George Mead), developed symbolic interaction theory, which involves exploring how people define reality and how their beliefs are related to their actions. Reality is created by attaching meanings to situations” (Grove, Gray & Burns, 2015, p. 71.). This theory has been used most frequently to study areas in which little previous research has been conducted and to gain a new viewpoint in familiar areas of research.
Phenomenological theory describes and explores experiences, which can only be done by collecting data from individuals who have lived through those experiences (Nursing Times, 2011). Phenomenological theory is often referred to as “lived experiences”. An example of this research approach would be a research study on individuals who has lived with/survived cancer. An individual that has not experienced any type of cancer will not be appropriate for this study.
Both research methods look at real life situations and require a high degree of interaction between the researcher and the individual, groups or situations being examined; this usually takes the form of interviews and/or observations.
Both research methods will be suitable for all research studies.
Both grounded theorists and phenomenologists seek to collect and analyze data from participants’ perspectives and try to ensure their findings are not influenced by preconceived ideas.
(Nursing Times, 2011).
Phenomenological theory
Grounded theory
Phenomenology emerged from philosophy
Grounded theory emerged from the discipline of sociology
Describes and explores experiences, which can only be done by collecting data from individuals who have lived through those experiences
Involves exploring how people define reality and how their beliefs are related to their actions
Data is often limited to interviews, while findings are reported as a rich description of the experience drawing on characteristics identified during data analysis.
All data sources that might contribute to theory development are utilized. Interviews are commonly used but they might also include observations, diaries, images, past literature and research.
(Nursing Times, 2011).
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