Business Ethics Test Questions with Answers Essay

Chap 5
16. The form of business that limits the liability of individuals for the risks involved in business activities is known as _____.
a. corporation
b. partnership
c. joint proprietorship
d. sole proprietorship
Answer: a

  1. Legislators created a form of business called corporations because they thought that businesses could be more efficient in raising the capital necessary for producing goods, services, jobs, and wealth if:
    a. multiple owners were involved in the strategic decision making process of the firm.
    b. there was transparency among all stakeholders.
    c. firms had the obligation to justify bad decisions.
    d. individuals were protected by limiting the liability of individuals for business activities.
    Answer: d
  2. According to the economic model of corporate social responsibility, the sole duty of a business is to:
    a. go beyond legal responsibilities to cater to the needs of the society.
    b. fulfill the economic functions that it was designed to serve.
    c. think beyond economic ends that have to be met to help the society.
    d. analyze the defects in society and design products to overcome these defects.
    Answer: b
  3. Which of the following is true about the economic model of CSR?
    a. It holds that a business should prioritize environmental sustainability.
    b. It has its roots in the Kantian tradition of ethics.
    c. It contends that the goal of business managers should be to pursue profit within the law.
    d. It holds that social goals should be at the heart of a firm’s mission.
    Answer: c
  4. Milton Friedman claims that a corporate executive has a “responsibility to conduct business in accordance with his or her employer’s desires, which generally will be to make as much money as possible while conforming to the basic rules of society, both those embodied in law and those embodied in ethical custom.” This view of corporate social responsibility has its roots in the _____ tradition.
    a. deontological
    b. Kantian
    c. utilitarian
    d. virtue
    Answer: c
  5. According to the economic model of corporate social responsibility, the pursuit of profit will continuously work toward the optimal satisfaction of consumer demand which, in one interpretation of _____is equivalent to maximizing the overall good.
    a. deontological ethics
    b. classicism
    c. virtue ethics
    d. utilitarianism
    Answer: d
  6. Which of the following models of corporate social responsibility holds pursuit of profit as the sole duty of a business?
    a. Economic model of corporate social responsibility
    b. Philanthropic model of corporate social responsibility
    c. Social web model of corporate social responsibility
    d. Integrative model of corporate social responsibility
    Answer: a
  7. A narrow view of corporate social responsibility is expressed by the:
    a. social web model of corporate social responsibility.
    b. integrative model of corporate social responsibility.
    c. economic model of corporate social responsibility.
    d. philanthropic model of corporate social responsibility.
    Answer: c
  8. Which of the following best describes corporate social responsibility?
    a. It refers to the dedication that employees show in meeting organizational goals.
    b. It refers to the accountability that a manager has over his subordinates.
    c. It refers to the actions for which a business can be held accountable.
    d. It refers to the actions that maximize the profit of an organization.
    Answer: c
  9. Corporate social responsibility refers to:
    a. those things that businesses ought, or should, do, even if they would rather not.
    b. those measures that are taken against the ill treatment of subordinates in a firm.
    c. the avoidance of misconduct within an organization.
    d. the responsibility that society has to ensure a business’s success.
    Answer: a
  10. Which of the following is the most demanding social responsibility?
    a. A business should prevent harm even in those cases where it is not the cause.
    b. A business should volunteer for society or environment-friendly work.
    c. A business should engage in charitable work for the development of the society.
    d. A business should not sell a product that causes harm to consumers.
    Answer: d
  11. Which of the following ethical requirements is the type of responsibility established by the precedents of tort law? a. Duty to not cause avoidable harm to the society
    b. Duty to find employment for employees injured at work
    c. Duty to engage in charitable work
    d. Duty to volunteer for causes related to the environment
    Answer: a
  12. Which of the following statements is true about the philanthropic model of corporate social responsibility?
    a. This model holds that business has no strict obligation to contribute to social causes, but it can be a good thing when they do so.
    b. This model views business as a citizen of the society in which it operates and, like all members of a society, business must conform to the normal ethical duties and obligations.
    c. This model begins with the recognition that every business decision affects a wide variety of people, benefiting some and imposing costs on others.
    d. This model holds that a firm’s financial goals must be balanced against, and perhaps even overridden by, environmental considerations.
    Answer: a
  13. The _____ model of CSR holds that, like individuals, business is free to contribute to social causes as a matter of philanthropy, and business has no strict obligation to contribute to social causes; but it can be a good thing when they do so.
    a. economic
    b. social web
    c. philanthropic
    d. integrative
    Answer: c
  14. “Just as individuals have no ethical obligation to contribute to charity or to do volunteer work in their community, business has no ethical obligations to serve wider social goods. But, just as charity is a good thing and something that we all want to encourage, business should be encouraged to contribute to society in ways that go beyond the narrow obligations of law and economics.” Identify the model of CSR that reflects this line of thought.
    a. Integrative model
    b. Stakeholder theory
    c. Philanthropic model
    d. Social web model
    Answer: c
  15. In the philanthropic model of CSR, situations where a business supports a social cause for the purpose of receiving a business benefit in return are not much different from:
    a. the economic model of CSR.
    b. the stakeholder theory of CSR.
    c. the integrative model of CSR.
    d. the sustainability theory of CSR.
    Answer: a
  16. The philanthropic model in which business support for a social cause is done because it is the right thing to do differs from the reputational version only in terms of the:
    a. level of social good done.
    b. underlying motivation.
    c. reach of the social good done.
    d. medium used.
    Answer: b
  17. Which of the following is true of philanthropy in accordance with the economic model of corporate social responsibility?
    a) Philanthropy done for reputational reasons is not fully ethical.
    b) Philanthropy done for solely financial benefits is not truly an act of social responsibility.
    c) Philanthropy done for financial reasons is ethically responsible.
    d) Philanthropy is considered as a social contribution rather than an investment.
    Answer: c
  18. Which of the following models of corporate social responsibility considers business a citizen of the society that it operates in?
    a. Philanthropic model
    b. Economic model
    c. Altruistic model
    d. Social web model
    Answer: d
  19. According to Norman Bowie, the “moral minimum” that we expect of every person—either acting as individuals or within corporate institutions—is:
    a. basic spirituality.
    b. respect for human rights.
    c. contribution to charity.
    d. accountability.
    Answer: b
  20. According to philosopher Norman Bowie, managers have a responsibility to maximize profits as long as they:
    a. respect human rights and cause no harm.
    b. contribute to charitable organizations.
    c. are confident and do charitable work.
    d. adhere to rules and regulations.
    Answer: a
  21. According to the philosopher Norman Bowie, the contractual duty that managers have to stockholder-owners:
    a. makes them focus on philanthropy.
    b. makes them feel obliged to perform social good and prevent harm to the society.
    c. overrides their responsibility to prevent harm or to do good.
    d. leads them to take environment-conscious managerial decisions.
    Answer: c
  22. Which of the following theories recognizes the fact that every business decision affects a wide variety of people—benefiting some and imposing costs on others?
    a. Stakeholder theory
    b. Integrative theory
    c. Altruistic theory
    d. Institutional theory
    Answer: a
  23. Stakeholder theory is an example of the:
    a. philanthropy model of corporate social responsibility.
    b. social web model of corporate social responsibility.
    c. economic model of corporate social responsibility.
    d. stockholder model of corporate social responsibility.
    Answer: b
    .
  24. An individual who argues that firms should be managed for the sole benefit of stockholders is defending the:
    a. philanthropic model of CSR.
    b. social web model of CSR.
    c. integrative model of CSR.
    d. economic model of CSR.
    Answer: d
  25. _____ theory argues that the narrow economic model fails both as an accurate descriptive and as a reasonable normative account of business management.
    a. Sustainability
    b. Stakeholder
    c. Classical
    d. Attributive
    Answer: b
    42. Which of the following is a similarity between utilitarianism and stakeholder theory?
    a. Both place organizational benefits above other considerations.
    b. Both consider the consequences of management decisions for the well-being of all affected groups.
    c. Both contribute to society in ways that go beyond the narrow obligations of law and economics.
    d. Both strive to focus only on consumers.
    Answer: b
  26. Corporate managers who fail to give due consideration to the rights of employees and other concerned groups in the pursuit of profit are treating these groups as means to the ends of stockholders. This is unjust according to the _____.
    a. financial framework
    b. classical tradition
    c. rights-based ethical framework
    d. stockholder theory
    Answer: c
  27. A firm that balances its social goals against economic goals and does justice to both is said to follow the:
    a. integrative model of corporate social responsibility.
    b. economic model of corporate social responsibility.
    c. social web model of corporate social responsibility.
    d. stakeholder model of corporate social responsibility.
    Answer: a
  28. The tension that prevails when an organization tries to meet both social and economic responsibilities is generally overcome by:
    a. utilizing a small percentage of profit on social causes.
    b. doing charitable work to build a good reputation within the community.
    c. pursuing social ends as the very core of an organization’s mission.
    d. emphasizing the importance of achieving the desired economic goals.
    Answer: c
  29. The for-profit organizations that prioritize social entrepreneurship and sustainability as a central part of their strategic mission are pursuing the _____ model of CSR.
    a. integrative
    b. economic
    c. social web
    d. philanthropic
    Answer: a
  30. Sustainability holds that:
    a. a firm’s financial goals must be balanced against environmental considerations.
    b. a firm must place social considerations below tasks beneficial to its growth.
    c. a firm must not prioritize social goals at the expense of economic growth.
    d. a firm’s sustenance is affected by overemphasis on environmental considerations.
    Answer: a
  31. Which of the following is an example of a firm that is failing its fundamental social responsibility?
    a. A firm that has its loss margins exceeding its profit margins
    b. A firm that uses resources at unsustainable rates
    c. A firm that is financially unstable
    d. A firm that prioritizes environmental sustainability
    Answer: b
  32. Which of the following versions of corporate social responsibility suggests that the long-term financial well-being of every firm is directly tied to questions of how the firm both affects and is affected by the natural environment?
    a. Social web
    b. Philanthropic
    c. Social entrepreneurship
    d. Sustainability
    Answer: d
  33. When a firm engages in socially responsible activities with a prime focus on reputation:
    a. social responsibility tend to become a form of social marketing.
    b. the measure of positive reputation gained is impossible to calculate.
    c. profits have to be sacrificed for social causes.
    d. it always loses employee loyalty.
    Answer: a
  34. The practice of attending to the “image” of a firm is referred to as:
    a. reputation management.
    b. branding.
    c. crisis management.
    d. gentrification.
    Answer: a
  35. Enlightened self-interest, an important justification offered for corporate social responsibility, presumes that:
    a. measurement of bottom-line impact of ethical decision making is unimportant.
    b. profits are independent of ethics.
    c. bottom-line impact of ethical decision making can be measured and compared.
    d. good ethics can also be good business.
    Answer: d
  36. Which of the following is the challenge associated with ethical pay offs?
    a. It ruins the reputation that triggered it.
    b. It is very small in comparison to profits.
    c. It is very difficult to measure ethical pay offs.
    d. It can easily be duplicated by competitors.
    Answer: c
  37. According to David Vogel, which of the following should a firm be most cautious about when engaging in CSR activities?
    a. Investing in CSR when consumers are not willing to pay higher prices to support that investment.
    b. Employees may become over-indulgent in activities related to social causes.
    c. Attrition levels may rise due to indifference among employees engaging in activities related to social responsibility.
    d. The easily measurable ethical pay off can turn out to be lower than the anticipated levels.
    Answer: a

Is this the question you were looking for? If so, place your order here to get started!

Business Ethics Exam Questions and Answers

Business Ethics Exam Questions and Answers:- Chap 8
16. Which of the following is a set of processes for creating, communicating, and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its stakeholders?
a. Procuring
b. Branding
c. Marketing
d. Copywriting
Answer: c

  1. Which of the following is one of the “Four Ps” of marketing?
    a. Purpose
    b. Planning
    c. Promotion
    d. People
    Answer: c
  2. The _____ ethical tradition would see a simple situation of an agreement for an exchange between two parties as upholding respect for individuals by treating them as autonomous agents capable of pursuing their own ends.
    a. role-based
    b. rights-based
    c. rules-based
    d. strategy-based
    Answer: b
  3. The _____ ethical tradition would take the two parties’ agreement as evidence that both are better off than they were prior to the exchange and thus conclude that overall happiness has been increased by any exchange freely entered into.
    a. utilitarian
    b. virtual
    c. Kantian
    d. deontological
    Answer: a
  4. The simple situation in which two parties come together and freely agree to an exchange is ethically legitimate only prima facie because:
    a. investigation proves that a simple exchange does not involve unethical situations.
    b. a simple exchange involves the consent of both parties involved, which leaves no room for unethical acts.
    c. certain conditions must be met before it can be concluded that autonomy has been respected and mutual benefit has been achieved.
    d. exchange occurs on mutual consent and for mutual benefit, parties get involved in an exchange only if they see their benefit.
    Answer: c
  5. While approaching an ethical issue in marketing, the rights-based tradition would:
    a. ask to what degree the participants are respected as free and autonomous agents rather than treated simply as means to the end of making a sale.
    b. calculate the benefits and costs of each exchange.
    c. attempt to find out about other values that are affected by the exchange.
    d. want to know the degree to which the transaction provided actual as opposed to merely apparent benefits for each participant.
    Answer: a
  6. While approaching an ethical issue in marketing, the utilitarian tradition would want to know:
    a. the degree to which individuals freely participate in an exchange.
    b. the degree to which the transaction provided actual as opposed to merely apparent benefits.
    c. about other values that are affected by the exchange.
    d. about the personal characters of the parties that are involved in the exchange.
    Answer: b
  7. A consumer’s consent to purchase a product is not informed if that consumer is:
    a. unwilling to listen to the product details from the sales person.
    b. injured after using the product and filed a product liability suit.
    c. asked to buy a product without a warranty.
    d. being misled or deceived about the product.
    Answer: d
  8. Greater consumption is likely to lead to unhappiness, a condition termed _____.
    a. affluenza
    b. caveat emptor
    c. influenza
    d. insomnia
    Answer: a
  9. The legal doctrine of strict liability is ethically controversial because:
    a. it assumes informed consent of the buyer and therefore it is assumed to be ethically legitimate.
    b. it allows consumers to assume that products are safe for use.
    c. it holds that consumer demand depends upon what producers sell.
    d. it holds a business accountable for paying damages whether or not it was at fault.
    Answer: d
  10. Identify the approach that assumes that every purchase involves the informed consent of the buyer and is ethically legitimate.
    a. Res ipsa loquitur approach
    b. Prima facie approach
    c. Caveat emptor approach
    d. Caveat venditor approach
    Answer: c
  11. In selling a product, a business offers tacit assurances that the product is reasonably suitable for its purpose. The law refers to this as the:
    a. doctrine of caveat emptor.
    b. implied warranty of merchantability.
    c. doctrine of caveat lector.
    d. implied warranty of productivity.
    Answer: b
  12. Which of the following statements is correct about the implied warranty of merchantability?
    a. It refers to the caveat emptor approach.
    b. This standard shifts the burden of proof from producers to consumers.
    c. Most courts allow a business to completely disclaim the implied warranty of merchantability.
    d. Many businesses issue a disclaimer of liability, or offer an expressed and limited warranty to limit their liability.
    Answer: d
  13. The implied warranty of merchantability shifts the burden of proof from:
    a. producers to consumers.
    b. producers to suppliers.
    c. consumers to producers.
    d. suppliers to consumers.
    Answer: c
  14. A business will seek to limit its liability by explicitly disowning any promise or warranty by:
    a. using the caveat venditor principle.
    b. issuing a disclaimer of liability.
    c. completely disclaiming the implied warranty of merchantability.
    d. denying responsibility for the behavior of its suppliers.
    Answer: b
  15. How did the use of an implied warranty of merchantability solve a set of problems with the contract law approach to product liability?
    a. Consumers do not need complex contracts in order to protect themselves from all possible harms that products might cause.
    b. The burden of proof has shifted from producers to consumers as consumers are allowed to assume that products are safe for ordinary use.
    c. It has forced businesses to issue a disclaimer of liability and offer limited warranties to limit its liability.
    d. Buyers have the responsibility to look out for their own interests and protect their own safety when buying a product.
    Answer: a
  16. Which of the following is true about tort law?
    a. Tort law holds that the only duties that a person owes are those that have been explicitly promised to another party.
    b. Tort law holds manufacturers accountable in cases when consumers are injured by products and no one is at fault.
    c. Tort law holds a principal responsible for the actions of an agent when that agent is acting in the ordinary course of his or her duties to the principal.
    d. Tort law holds that people do not owe other people any general duties, if they have not voluntarily assumed them.
    Answer: b
  17. Which of the following statements is true about negligence?
    a. It is not a central component of tort law.
    b. One can be negligent by doing something that one should not.
    c. One cannot be held negligent by failing to do something that one should have done.
    d. It excludes acts of both commission and omission.
    Answer: b
  18. Which of the following is true about strict product liability?
    a. The United States has adopted clear strict liability standards.
    b. It holds that the government must pay consumers where neither the producer nor the consumer is at fault.
    c. It insures that society creates a strong incentive for business to produce safer goods and services by holding business strictly liable for any harm their products cause.
    d. It is the same as negligence, and it suggests that holding business liable for harms caused due to negligence provides an incentive to better protect products in the future.
    Answer: c
  19. Society creates a strong incentive for businesses to produce safer goods and services by holding them responsible for any harm their products cause. This claim supports the:
    a. strict product liability standard.
    b. actual foreseeability standard.
    c. reasonable person standard.
    d. consent and informed decision standard.
    Answer: a
  20. Which of the following statements is true about manipulation?
    a. It involves total control of direction or management.
    b. A person cannot manipulate someone without deception.
    c. It implies guiding people’s behavior with their conscious understanding. d. To manipulate something is to guide or direct its behavior.
    Answer: d
  21. Which of the following ethical traditions would have the strongest objections to manipulation?
    a. Economic
    b. Virtue-based
    c. Principle-based
    d. Utilitarian
    Answer: c
  22. Which of the following statements about manipulation would a strong believer of the principle-based ethical tradition most likely support?
    a. Cases of paternalistic manipulation, in which someone is manipulated for their own good, are acceptable.
    b. Manipulation executed without deception is acceptable.
    c. Even unsuccessful manipulations are guilty of ethical wrong.
    d. The ethical consequence of manipulation depends on the personal characteristics of the manipulator.
    Answer: c
  23. Marketing practices targeted at elderly populations for goods such as supplemental health insurance, funerals etc. are subject to criticism because:
    a. that population is vulnerable.
    b. interest gained on such investments are not highly profitable.
    c. they target the considered and rational desires of the consumers.
    d. they do not abide by the principles of welfare economics.
    Answer: a
  24. According to economist John Kenneth Galbraith, advertising and marketing were creating the very consumer demand that production then aimed to satisfy. The assertion that consumer demand relies upon what producers have to sell is termed:
    a. the Hawthorne effect.
    b. the dependence effect.
    c. the reverse channel effect.
    d. the supplemental effect.
    Answer: b
  25. Identify one of the implications of the “dependence effect.”
    a. Unless a seller explicitly warrants a product as safe, buyers are liable for any harm they suffer.
    b. Advertising and marketing create consumer wants that support the entire economy.
    c. The court’s ruling on product liability cases is dependent on the extent of manipulation.
    d. By creating consumer wants, advertising and other marketing practices violate consumer autonomy.
    Answer: d
  26. Which of the following do advertising and other marketing practices violate by creating consumer wants?
    a. Right to free speech
    b. Consumer autonomy
    c. Right to privacy
    d. Consumer demand
    Answer: b
  27. How does advertising distort the economy?
    a. It manipulates prices for promotion to gain a foothold in a market.
    b. It results in supply becoming a function of demand.
    c. It is not able to create nonautonomous desires.
    d. It creates irrational and trivial consumer wants.
    Answer: d
  28. Consumer vulnerability occurs when:
    a. a person has an impaired ability to make an informed consent to the market exchange.
    b. a person is susceptible to injuries from falls and medical emergencies.
    c. the consumer is treated as an end in itself.
    d. the law of supply and demand is reversed.
    Answer: a
  29. Which of the following is an example of consumer vulnerability?
    a. Elderly people susceptible to expensive health care bills
    b. Poor people susceptible to bankruptcy
    c. Children susceptible to any bright, attractive items of no practical value
    d. Single women walking alone at night susceptible to sexual assault
    Answer: c
  30. General vulnerability occurs when:
    a. a person has an impaired ability to make an informed consent to the market exchange.
    b. a person is susceptible to some specific physical, psychological, or financial harm.
    c. children are shown commercials in and around schools.
    d. people are susceptible to the harm of not satisfying their consumer desires and/or losing their money.
    Answer: b
  31. Consumers are vulnerable when they are not aware that they are subject to a marketing campaign. This type of campaign is called:
    a. imminent marketing.
    b. word-of-mouth marketing.
    c. network marketing.
    d. undercover marketing.
    Answer: d
  32. Which of the following statements is true about stealth marketing?
    a. It occurs when consumers are aware that they are subject to a marketing campaign.
    b. It refers to situations where consumers are subject to directed commercial activity without their knowledge.
    c. It occurs when consumers pay little or no attention to billboards while speeding past a highway.
    d. It is not an intentional effort to hide the true marketing element of the interaction.
    Answer: b
  33. Marketing experts consider stealth marketing extraordinarily effective because:
    a. a consumer does not question the message as she might challenge a traditional advertising campaign.
    b. the consumer’s guard is not down while accepting the message.
    c. consumers do not see the communication as
    too personal and often tend to trust an advertisement or other marketing material much more than they would trust the communicator.
    d. consumers seek out the communicator’s vested interest.
    Answer: a
  34. An employer is held liable for damages caused by an accident involving an employee driving the company car on company business. Identify the law underlying this decision.
    a. The doctrine of caveat emptor
    b. The doctrine of respondent superior
    c. Implied warranty of merchantability
    d. The doctrine of caveat lector
    Answer: b
  35. UniCo—a multinational corporation that specializes in designing, developing, and selling consumer electronics—outsources manufacturing products to a third-world country company. Human rights activists have criticized UniCo for operating inhumane sweatshops at the manufacturing plants to gain profits. Although UniCo. is not directly liable to the labor exploitation, it threatens to pull out its business from the contracted company if the laborers are not provided with dignified wages and good working conditions. Which of the following responsibilities did the company fulfill in this scenario?
    a. Caveat emptor
    b. Implied merchantability
    c. Respondent superior
    d. Strict liability
    Answer: c
  36. Which of the following is an often overlooked aspect of advertising?
    a. Pricing function
    b. Evaluation function
    c. Educational function
    d. Watchdog function
    Answer: c
  37. Identify the practice of promoting a product by misleading consumers about the environmentally beneficial aspects of the product.
    a. Greenwashing
    b. Redlining
    c. Gentrification
    d. Greenskinning
    Answer: a
  38. Labeling products with such terms as “environmentally friendly,” “natural,” “eco,” “energy efficient,” “biodegradable” and the like can help promote products that have little or no environmental benefits. This practice is known as:
    a. greenskinning.
    b. redlining.
    c. gentrification.
    d. greenwashing.
    Answer: d
  39. Which of the following refers to the growing marketing practice of taking back one’s products after their useful life?
    a. Reintermediation
    b. Reverse channels
    c. Disintermediation
    d. Forward integration
    Answer: b

Is this the question you were looking for? If so, place your order here to get started!

Business Ethics Quizzes Online with Answers

Business Ethics Quizzes Online with Answers:-

Chap 9
16. The Triple Bottom Line approach involves measuring business success of sustainable businesses and sustainable economic development in terms of:
a. economic, legal, and environmental sustainability.
b. economic, ethical, and environmental sustainability.
c. economic, legal, and competitive sustainability.
d. legal, competitive, and environmental sustainability.
Answer: b

  1. Knowing what the future must be, creative businesses then look backwards to the present and determine what must be done to arrive at that future. This process is known as:
    a. backward integration.
    b. forecasting.
    c. forward integration.
    d. backcasting.
    Answer: d
  2. Which of the following is true of the conservation movement?
    a. It advocated that the natural world should not be used as a capital resource.
    b. It regarded natural resources as being able to provide an inexhaustible
    supply of material.
    c. It recommended a more restrained and prudent approach to the natural world.
    d. It argued against the natural world being used to provide indirect benefits.
    Answer: c
  3. The conservation movement:
    a. regarded natural resources as being able to provide an inexhaustible supply of material.
    b. advocated that the natural world should not be used as a capital resource.
    c. argued that the natural world was valued as a resource, providing humans with both direct benefits and indirect benefits.
    d. believed that business does not good reasons for conserving natural resources.
    Answer: c
  4. Reminiscent of the _____ tradition, it is suggested that some animals have the cognitive capacity to possess a conscious life of their own and people have a duty not to treat these animals as mere objects and means to their own ends.
    a. Kantian
    b. virtue ethic
    c. neoclassical
    d. social web
    Answer: a
  5. Which of the following is true of a market-based approach to resolving environmental challenges?
    a. It is critical of the narrow, philanthropic view of corporate social responsibility (CSR).
    b. It asserts that limited resources should not be distributed in the market.
    c. It suggests that environmental problems deserve economic solutions.
    d. It conveys that resources are infinite and fungible.
    Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy

  1. Which of the following is involved in environmental problems according to the market-based approach to resolving environmental challenges?
    a. Lack of knowledge of producing renewable resources
    b. Inability of businesses to produce and sell limited resources
    c. Lack of use of appropriate substitutes for limited resources
    d. Allocation and distribution of limited resources
    Answer: d
  2. Which of the following was suggested by William Baxter?
    a. An optimal level of pollution can be achieved through competitive markets.
    b. Society can strive for pure air and water at a very low cost.
    c. From a strict market economic perspective, resources are infinite.
    d. All resources can be replaced by substitutes.
    Answer: a
    Difficulty: Medium
  3. In economic terms, all resources:
    a. are infinite because they can be replaced by substitutes.
    b. are distributed fairly by the government.
    c. can be made available everywhere.
    d. are distributed efficiently in the market.
    Answer: a
  4. Which of the following explains the statement “All resources are fungible”?
    a. It means that all resources can be regulated by the government.
    b. It means that all resources can be replaced by substitutes.
    c. It means that all resources cannot be duplicated.
    d. It means that all resources cannot be recycled and reused.
    Answer: b
  5. Which of the following is true about the market-based approach to environmental responsibility?
    a. Market failure occurs when no markets exist to create a price for important social goods.
    b. Free market exchanges can guarantee optimal results for addressing issues related to externalities.
    c. The market-based approach always ensures that what is good and rational for a collection of individuals is also good and rational for a society.
    d. Markets can be very successful if important ethical and policy questions and policy decisions are left solely to the outcome of individual decisions.
    Answer: a
  6. Which of the following ways can lead market failure to serious environmental harm?
    a. Creating abundant markets to create a price for important social goods
    b. Making no distinction between individual decisions and group consequences
    c. Inexistence of externalities in the economic exchange system
    d. Assigning property rights to unowned goods
    Answer: b
  7. Which of the following causes inadequacy in ad hoc attempts—internalizing external costs and assigning property rights to unowned goods such as wild species—to repair market failures?
    a. The backcasting problem
    b. The fungibility problem
    c. The biomimicry problem
    d. The first-generation problem
    Answer: d
  8. Markets can work to prevent harm only through information supplied by the existence of market failures. This is better known as the:
    a. biomimicry effect.
    b. backcasting problem.
    c. first-generation problem.
    d. primary market effect.
    Answer: c
  9. Before environmental legislation was enacted, the primary legal avenue open for addressing environmental concerns was:
    a. tort law.
    b. international law.
    c. public law.
    d. criminal law.
    Answer: a
  10. Which of the following is true about the regulatory approach to environmental challenges?
    a. It overestimates the influence that business can have on establishing the law.
    b. The government established regulatory standards to offer compensation after the occurrence of pollution or any other environmental harm.
    c. It shifted the burden from those threatened with harm to those who would cause the harm.
    d. This approach ensures that business does not pursue any financial opportunities that cause harm to the environment.
    Answer: c
  11. Which of the following is a problem associated with the regulatory approach to environmental challenges?
    a. The regulatory model assumes that economic growth is environmentally and ethically benign.
    b. If people rely on the law to protect the environment, environmental protection will extend beyond the law.
    c. Business passively responds to consumer desires and consumers are unaffected by the messages that business conveys.
    d. National regulations are the only means to effectively address international environmental challenges.
    Answer: a
  12. Which of the following is true about the concept of sustainable development and sustainable business practice?
    a. It suggests a radically new vision for integrating financial and environmental goals, compared to the growth model that preceded it.
    b. According to this concept, only individuals who can prove that they had been harmed by pollution can raise legal challenges.
    c. According to this concept, an economic solution to compensation should be offered for the harm only after the harm has been done.
    d. It focuses only on the costs that businesses incur in pursuing environmental goals.
    Answer: a
  13. The three goals of sustainable development that include economic, environmental, and ethical sustainability are referred to as the:
    a. tripartite goals.
    b. three pillars of sustainability.
    c. three pronged charter.
    d. shoulders of sustainability.
    Answer: b
  14. Which of the following was charged with developing recommendations for paths toward economic and social development that would not achieve short-term economic growth at the expense of long-term environmental and economic sustainability?
    a. The Bluewash Commission
    b. The Binding Commission
    c. The Barentsburg Commission
    d. The Brundtland Commission
    Answer: d
  15. Which of the following is true of the Brundtland Commission?
    a. It was named as the Brundtland Commission after the place in Norway, where the summit was conducted for the first time.
    b. It was charged with developing recommendations for paths toward economic and social development at the expense of underdeveloped and developing countries.
    c. It defined sustainable development as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
    d. It criticized the report from the United Nations’ World Commission on Environment and Development published in 1987.
    Answer: c
  16. Which of the following models does not differentiate natural resources from the other factors of production and does not explain the origin of resources?
    a. The circular flow model
    b. The triple bottom line model
    c. The bilinear model
    d. The sustainability model
    Answer: a
    .
  17. Which of the following is true of the circular flow model?
    a. It differentiates natural resources from the other factors of production.
    b. It suggests that to keep up with the economy, the population must grow.
    c. It treats economic growth as both the solution to all social ills and also as
    boundless.
    d. It argues that the economy cannot grow indefinitely.
    Answer: c
  18. The possibility that the economy cannot grow indefinitely is simply not part of the:
    a. three pillars of sustainability approach.
    b. circular flow model.
    c. triple bottom line approach.
    d. bilinear model.
    Answer: b
  19. According to economist Herman Daly, neoclassical economics, with its emphasis on economic growth as the goal of economic policy will inevitably fail to meet these challenges:
    a. if it suggests that the population of the world needs to be controlled.
    b. unless it recognizes that the economy is but a subsystem within earth’s biosphere.
    c. unless it recognizes that resources are infinite.
    d. if it focuses on recycling and reusing the by-products of the production process.
    Answer: b
  20. According to the _____ law of thermodynamics (the conservation of matter/energy), neither matter nor energy can truly be “created,” it can only be transferred from one form to another.
    a. first
    b. second
    c. third
    d. fourth
    Answer: a
  21. The model of economy, in consistency with the second law of thermodynamics, implies that:
    a. the amount of re-usable products decreases with an increase in production.
    b. the economy exists beyond a finite biosphere.
    c. wastes are not produced at each stage of economic activity.
    d. the amount of usable energy decreases over time.
    Answer: d
  22. Over the long term, resources and energy cannot be used, nor waste produced, at rates at which the biosphere cannot replace or absorb them without jeopardizing its ability to sustain life. These are what Herman Daly calls the:
    a. “economic limitations.”
    b. “backcasting effect.”
    c. “biophysical limits to growth.”
    d. “un-expandable boundaries.”
    Answer: c
  23. Which of the following is true of the sustainability model in terms of environmental responsibilities?
    a. Sustainability need not be a long-term strategy.
    b. The huge unmet market potential among the world’s developing economies can only be met in sustainable ways.
    c. Sustainable practices lead to reduced cost savings.
    d. Firms that follow sustainable practices lose competitive advantage.
    Answer: b
  24. Which of the following is true of the sustainability model in terms of environmental responsibilities?
    a. Sustainability reduces competitive advantage.
    b. Sustainability is not a prudent long-term strategy.
    c. Sustainability is a good risk management strategy.
    d. Sustainability leads to reduced cost-savings.
    Answer: c
  25. Estimates suggest that with present technologies, businesses can readily achieve at least a fourfold increase in efficiency, and perhaps as much as a tenfold increase. This can be achieved through the first principle of sustainability known as:
    a. biomimicry.
    b. eco-efficiency.
    c. the cradle-to-cradle responsibility.
    d. the take-make-waste model.
    Answer: b
  26. Which of the following recommends cycling the waste of one activity into the resource of another?
    a. The biomimicry principle
    b. The cradle-to-grave model
    c. The cradle-to-cradle model
    d. The eco- efficiency principle
    Answer: a
  27. “Closed-loop” production seeks to integrate what is presently waste, back into production. In an ideal situation, the waste of one firm becomes the resource of another, and such synergies can create eco-industrial parks. This principle is often referred to as:
    a. biomimicry.
    b. eco-efficiency.
    c. biosynergy.
    d. backcast.
    Answer: a
  28. Which of the following suggests that a business takes resources, makes products out of them, and discards whatever is left over?
    a. The cradle-to-grave model
    b. The take-make-waste approach
    c. The Cradle-to-cradle model
    d. The eco-efficiency principle
    Answer: b
  29. Which of the following holds that a business is responsible for the entire life of its products, including the ultimate disposal even after the sale? a. The cradle-to-grave model
    b. The take-make-waste appoach
    c. The cradle-to-cradle model
    d. The eco-efficiency principle
    Answer: a
  30. Cradle-to-grave and cradle-to-cradle responsibilities are part of the _____ sustainable business principle.
    a. eco-efficiency
    b. backcasting
    c. biomimicry
    d. take-make-waste
    Answer: c
  31. Which of the following would hold a business liable for groundwater contamination caused by its products even years after they had been buried in a landfill?
    a. “Backcast” model
    b. “Eco-efficiency” model
    c. “Take-make-waste” model
    d. “Cradle-to-grave” model
    Answer: d
  32. Which of the following holds that a business should be responsible for incorporating the end results of its products back into the productive cycle?
    a. Backcasting
    b. Cradle-to-cradle
    c. Take-make-waste
    d. Cradle-to-grave
    Answer: b
  33. Which of the following responsibilities entail an incentive to redesign products so that they can be recycled efficiently and easily?
    a. Cradle-to-grave
    b. Backcasting
    c. Cradle-to-cradle
    d. Eco-efficiency
    Answer: c
  34. Which of the following is true of a service-based economy?
    a. A service-based economy tends to the consumers’ demand for clothes cleaning, floor covering, illumination, entertainment, and so forth.
    b. A service-based economy interprets consumer demand as a demand for washing machines, carpets, lights, consumer electronics, and so forth.
    c. A service-based economy weakens the production efficiencies.
    d. A service-based economy increases material and energy costs significantly.
    Answer: a

Is this the question you were looking for? If so, place your order here to get started!

WHICH RULE DESCRIBES THE COMPOSITION OF TRANSFORMATIONS THAT MAPS ΔBCD TO ΔB”C”D”?

Which rule describes the composition of transformations that maps ΔBCD to ΔB”C”D”?

Expert Answer:

  1. a reflection across the y-axis.
  2. a reflection across the line y = x.

Step-by-step explanation:

In the image attached you can observe that the order of transformations is

TRANSFORMATIONS EXPERT ANSWER

 

The first transformation TRANSFORMATIONS EXPERT HELP ONLINE  is a reflection across the y-axis, notice that this axis works as a mirror, that indicates such reflection. Also, when this reflection is applied, all x-values in all cordinates change to the opposite, in this case, from positive to negative. For example, C(1,2) changed to C'(-1,2)

 

The second transformation  TRANSFORMATIONS EXPERT HOMEWORK HELP ONLINE   is a reflection across the line y = x, that is, across the origin of the coordinate system which is at (0,0). One way to notice this transformation is observing the coordinates, they change of place, for example B'(-1, 4) changed to B”(4, -1)

 

Therefore, the transformations are:

  1. a reflection across the y-axis.
  2. a reflection across the line y = x.
TRANSFORMATIONS EXPERT HOMEWORK HELP ONLINE CHEAP

Is this the question you were looking for? If so, place your order here to get started!

FINANCIAL STATEMENT REPORTS

FINANCIAL STATEMENT REPORTS ?1. Which financial statement reports the amounts of cash that the firm generated and distributed during a particular time period? ?statement of retained earnings ?Income statement ?Statement of cash flows ?Balance sheet 2. Which of these provide a forum in which demanders of funds raise funds by issuing new financial instruments, such as stocks and bonds? ?Money markets ?Investment banks ?Primary markets ?Secondary markets 3. The top part of Mars Inc.’s 2013 balance sheet is listed as follows (in millions of dollars). What are Mars, Inc.’s current ratio, quick ratio, and cash ratio for 2013? ?4.2, 1.0, 0.2 ?2.3333, 0.5556, 0.1111 ?10.5, 6.0, 1.0 ?0.1111, 0.5556, 0.2 ?4. Which of these ratios show the combined effects of liquidity asset management and debt management on the overall operation results of the firm? ?Financial ?Profitability ?Coverage ?Liquidity 5. As new capital budgeting projects arise we must estimate__________. ?the cost of the stock being sold for the specific project ?when such projects will require cash flows ?the cost of the loan for the specific project ?the float costs for financing the project 6. What’s the current yield of a 6 percent coupon corporate bond quoted at a price of 101.70? ?6.1 percent ?10.2 percent ?6.0 percent ?5.9 percent 6%½101.7%=0.058997=5.9% 7. We call the process of earning interest on both the original deposit and on the earlier interest payments: ?computing. ?multiplying. ?compounding. ?discounting. 8. Which financial statement reports a firm’s assets liabilities and equity at a particular point in time? ?Balance sheet ?Income statement ?Statement of retained earnings ?Statement of cash flows 9. You are trying to pick the least-expensive machine for your company. You have two choices: machine A, which will cost $50,000 to purchase and which will have OCF of -$3,500 annually throughout the machine’s expected life of three years; and machine B, which will cost $75,000 to purchase and which will have OCF of -$4,900 annually throughout that machine’s four-year life. Both machines will be worthless at the end of their life. If you intend to replace whichever type of machine you choose with the same thing when its life runs out, again and again out into the foreseeable future, and if your business has a cost of capital of 14 percent, which one should you choose? ?Machine A ?Machine B ?Neither machine A nor B ?Both machines A and B 10. When firms use multiple sources of capital, they need to calculate the appropriate discount rate for valuing their firm’s cash flows as__________. ?a simple average of the capital components costs ?a weighted average of the capital components costs ?a sum of the capital components costs ?they apply to each asset as they are purchased with their respective forms of debt or equity 11. Which of these is used as a measure of the total amount of available cash flow from a project? ?Operating cash flow ?Investment in operating capital ?Free cash flow ?Sunk cash flow 12. Which of these does NOT perform vital functions to securities markets of all sorts by channeling funds from those with surplus funds to those with shortages of funds? ?Secondary markets ?Mutual funds ?Insurance companies ?Commercial banks 13. Will’s Wheels, Inc. reported a debt-to-equity ratio of 0.65 times at the end of 2013. If the firm’s total debt at year-end was $5 million, how much equity does Will’s Wheels have? ?$7.69 million ?$5 million ?$0.65 million ?$3.25 million 14. Which of these is the term for portfolios with the highest return possible for each risk level? ?Total portfolios ?Modern portfolios ?Optimal portfolios ?Efficient portfolios 15. What are the tools available for the manager in financial planning? ?Delaying disbursement of cash, reducing collection period, cash management, and Increasing inventory turnover ?Reducing collection period and delaying disbursement of cash ?Increasing inventory turnover and reducing collection period ?Delaying disbursement of cash and cash management 16. Suppose that Model Nails, Inc.’s capital structure features 60 percent equity, 40 percent debt, and that its before-tax cost of debt is 6 percent, while its cost of equity is 10 percent. If the appropriate weighted average tax rate is 28 percent, what will be Model Nails’ WACC? ?7.73 percent ?8.40 percent ?8.00 percent ?16.00 percent 0.60 x 10% + 0 x 0% + .40 x 6% x (1 – .28) = 7.728% 17. We commonly measure the risk-return relationship using which of the following? ?Coefficient of variation ?Standard deviation ?Expected returns ?Correlation coefficient 18. Financial plans include which of the following? ?Schedule of Sales, Expenses, and Capital Expenditure ?All of the above ?Short Term and Long Term Plan ?Pro forma Income Statement, Balance Sheet 19. Which of the following terms means that during periods when interest rates change substantially, bondholders experience distinct gains and losses in their bond investments? ?Interest rate risk ?Credit quality risk ?Reinvestment rate risk ?Liquidity rate risk 20. What are reasons for the firm to go abroad? ?Access to raw materials ?Diversification ?Lower production cost ?All of the above 21. Which of these statements is true regarding divisional WACC? ?Using a simple firmwide WACC to evaluate new projects would give an unfair advantage to projects that present more risk than the firm’s average beta. ?Using a divisional WACC versus a WACC for the firm’s current operations will result in quite a few incorrect decisions. ?Using a firmwide WACC to evaluate new projects would have no impact on projects that present less risk than the firm’s average beta. ?Using a simple firmwide WACC to evaluate new projects would give an unfair advantage to projects that present less risk than the firm’s average beta. 22. The Rule of 72 is a simple mathematical approximation for__________. ?the number of years required to double an investment ?the payments required to double an investment ?the present value required to double an investment ?the number of years required to double an investment the future value required to double an investment 23. We can estimate a stock’s value by__________. ?using the book value of the total stockholder equity section ?using the book value of the total assets divided by the number of shares outstanding ?discounting the future dividends and future stock price appreciation ?compounding the past dividends and past stock price appreciation 24. Which of these is the process of estimating expected future cash flows of a project using only the relevant parts of the balance sheet and income statements? ?Substitutionary analysis ?Incremental cash flows ?Cash flow analysis ?Pro forma analysis 25. Five years ago, Jane invested $5,000 and locked in an 8 percent annual interest rate for 25 years (ending 20 years from now). James can make a 20-year investment today and lock in a 10 percent interest rate. How much money should he invest now in order to have the same amount of money in 20 years as Jane? ?$7,346.64 ?$5,089.91 ?$3,160.43 ?$3,464.11 Jane :PV = 5000,N=25, 1 = 8, PMT=0, CPT FV=3424.38 Jane :FV = 3424.38, N=(25-5), = 20, 1 = 10, PMT=0, CPT PV=5081.91 26. The overall goal of the financial manager is to__________. ?maximize net income ?maximize earnings per share ?maximize shareholder wealth ?minimize total costs 27. Which of the following can create ethical dilemmas between corporate managers and stockholders? ?Auditors ?Board of directors ?Agency relationship ?Venture Capitalist ?28. A firm is expected to pay a dividend of $2.00 next year and $2.14 the following year. Financial analysts believe the stock will be at their target price of $75.00 in two years. Compute the value of this stock with a required return of 10 percent. ?$79.14 ?$65.40 ?$65.57 ?$66.67 0 CF0 2.00 C01, 1 F01 77.14 C02, 1 F02 10 I NPV = 65.57 29. Which financial statement shows the total revenues that a firm earns and the total expenses the firm incurs to generate those revenues over a specific period of time — generally one year? ?Statement of cash flows ?Statement of retained earnings ?Balance sheet ?Income statement 30. Which of the following is a true statement? ?If interest rates fall, all bonds will enjoy rising values. ?If interest rates fall, corporate bonds will have decreasing values. ?If interest rates fall, no bonds will enjoy rising values. ?If interest rates fall, U.S. Treasury bonds will have decreasing values.

Is this the question you were looking for? If so, place your order here to get started!

European Financial Management, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2003, 379–406

European Financial Management, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2003, 379–406

Professional Forum Paying People to Lie: the Truth about the Budgeting Process
Michael C. Jensen*
The Monitor Group and Harvard Business School e-mail: MJensen@hbs.edu

This paper analyzes the counterproductive effects associated with using budgets or
targets in an organisation’s performance measurement and compensation systems.
Paying people on the basis of how their performance relates to a budget or target
causes people to game the system and in doing so to destroy value in two main ways.‘
a ) both superiors and subordinates lie in the formulation of budgets and, therefore, gut
the budgeting process of the critical unbiased information that is required to coordinate
the activities of disparate parts of’an organisation, and { b ) they game the realisation of
the budgets or targets and in doing so destroy value for their organisations. Although
most managers and analysts understand that budget gaming is widespread, few
understand the huge costs it imposes on organisations and how to lower them.
M y purpose in this paper is to explain exactly how this happens and how managers and
firms can stop this counter-productive cycle. The key lies not in destroying the budgeting
systems, but in changing the way organisations pay people. In particular to stop this
highly counter-productive behaviour we must stop using budgets or targets in the
compensation formulas and promotion systems for employees and managers. This
means taking all kinks, discontinuities and non-linearities out of the pay-for-performance
profile of” each employee and manager. Such purely linear compensation formulas
provide no incentives to lie, or to withhold and distort information, or to game the system.
While the evidence on the costs of” these systems is not extensive, I believe that solving
the problems could easily result in large productivity and value increases – sometimes as
much as 50-Ioo% improvements in productivity. I believe the less intensive reliance
on such budget/target systems is an important cause of” the increased productivity of
Thanks to Joe Fuller, Nancy Nichols, Jennifer Lacks-Kaplan, Pat Meredith, Roger Marten,
Shibanee Verma, and Susanne Greenberg from Monitor, the editors of the Harvard Business
Review, and Michael Gibbs and Edwin Locke for their contributions to this piece. An executive
summary of this paper entitled ‘Corporate budgeting is broken – let’s fix it’ was published in the
Harvard Business Review, November 2001. An early version of this paper was given at the EF MA
Meetings in Athens, Greece in June 2001 before the wave of corporate scandals including Enron,
Worldcom and others. Because the paper is fully consistent with these later events I found little
reason to update it to include these more notorious examples of the phenomena.
Jensen, 2003. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 ZDQ, UK and 350 Main Street, Malden, MA

Abstract This paper analyzes the counterproductive effects associated with using budgets or targets in an organisation’s performance measurement and compensation systems. Paying people on the basis of how their performance relates to a budget or target causes people to game the system and in doing so to destroy value in two main ways: (a) both superiors and subordinates lie in the formulation of budgets and, therefore, gut the budgeting process of the critical unbiased information that is required to coordinate the activities of disparate parts of an organisation, and (b) they game the realisation of the budgets or targets and in doing so destroy value for their organisations. Although most managers and analysts understand that budget gaming is widespread, few understand the huge costs it imposes on organisations and how to lower them. My purpose in this paper is to explain exactly how this happens and how managers and firms can stop this counter-productive cycle. The key lies not in destroying the budgeting systems, but in changing the way organisations pay people. In particular to stop this highly counter-productive behaviour we must stop using budgets or targets in the compensation formulas and promotion systems for employees and managers. This means taking all kinks, discontinuities and non-linearities out of the pay-for-performance profile of each employee and manager. Such purely linear compensation formulas provide no incentives to lie, or to withhold and distort information, or to game the system. While the evidence on the costs of these systems is not extensive, I believe that solving the problems could easily result in large productivity and value increases – sometimes as much as 50–100% improvements in productivity.

Is this the question you were looking for? If so, place your order here to get started!

Mu Sigma Organization Design

Is this the question you were looking for? If so, place your order here to get started!

Alpha Cafe

Is this the question you were looking for? If so, place your order here to get started!

Unilever Bangladesh

Unilever Bangladesh:- Most of the South Asian economies (e.g. India, Pakistan and Bangladesh) have made significant economic progress in the last two decades and are well on track to becoming major regional or even world economic powerhouses. In the recent years, many MNCs are increasingly putting more attention to the emerging. Asian countries for competitive advantage. One classic example is China. With a population of more than 1.3 billion China is predicted to be the largest economy in the world by next 20 years surpassing United States (UN Report 2007). China has become the manufacturing and investment hub for many MNCs. Despite huge success for most of the MNCs, many already failed in doing business in China due to their management’s inability to manage their human resources appropriately. Taking the Chinese lead like the tiger economies in Asia, Bangladesh is also emerging as a dynamic and significant economic player in South Asia. Bangladesh is one of the pioneers in the region for economic liberalization. It has adopted the best policies of South Asia to attract Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). Doing business in Bangladesh is much easier than most of the developing countries. A recent report entitled “Doing Business in 2007: Creating Jobs” published jointly by World Bank and IFC placed Bangladesh in 68th position in terms of easy of doing business among 175 countries (World Bank, 2007).

This places Bangladesh ahead of other countries in the region such as India (88th) and China (128th). In 2005 total FDI inflow into Bangladesh increased by 84% amounting to US$845 million. This growth is the second highest in the entire South Asia region. According to the World Investment Report 2006, Bangladesh is now ahead of India in terms of the FDI Performance Index being ranked 116 among 200 economies (BOI Handbook, 2007). Unilever is an Anglo-Dutch company, with a history of grand operation, on which it has gradually built its capital. Today it owns most of the world’s consumer product brands in food, beverages, cleaning agents and personal care products. Unilever Bangladesh Ltd is one of the world’s most successful fast moving consumer goods manufacturing companies with local manufacturing facilities, reporting to regional business groups for innovation and business results. Unilever brands are trusted everywhere and, by listening to the people who buy them, they’ve grown into one of the world’s most successful consumer goods companies. In fact, 150 million times a day, someone somewhere chooses a Unilever product. Unilever Bangladesh Limited has five departments to carry out all the organizational functions. Multinational corporations are large companies which operate in more than one country.

Developing countries are the host countries and have become the object of study as there are many questions regarding the benefits of hosting a MNC. Are MNCs contributing to the sustainable development of a developing country? Or, do they simply exploit developing countries creating a country dependent on that MNC for their own economic, social and ecological growth? Apparently they are transferring new technologies to a developing country, the introduction of sophisticated managing techniques, and foreign direct investments. Depending on this point of view, either the MNC brings valuable tools to a developing country which in turn infuses their economy with new jobs and raises the skills of the workers or the MNC fully exploits the developing country exporting the technology, capital and resources back to the parent country or other developed countries for profit. MNCs help increase the investment level and thereby the income and employment in the host country. MNCs build up factories, office buildings, warehouses, etc. in the developing countries as a form of subsidiary investment. This results in a large scale flow of funds into the developing country, which is good for the developing nation as it is bringing in a gross amount of foreign currency into the country.

From the perspective of a developing country, establishing a MNC is beneficial in the sense that it creates a huge chance of employment for the labor force of the nation. It increases the employment rate as more people get employed in the newly setup company. As a result, the unemployment rate of the country is also reduced as an after-effect of the increased employment. The large MNCs that crop up in the developing country is all together a benefit for the country. The provision of employment created due to MNCs reduces the unemployment rate. The tax earned by the government from these MNCs produce a large sum of money that can be invested by the government in the economic development of the country. MNCs do many types social activities in Bangladesh which helps our society. For example: UniLever introduced many talent hunt programs to find the actual stars of our nation. Close-up1 Tomakei Kujchea, Lux Photogenic are the key programs introduced by them. British American Tobacco Bangladesh (BATB) is also doing some activities in Bangladesh. This report is designed in three major chapters. Initially the opening words about the report were described in the first segment titled “Introduction”. The next segment “Overview of Unilever” contains the history of Unilever, Unilever Bangladesh Ltd, and Organizational structure. Next two chapters are different factors faced by MNCs and explain how to avoid or to minimize risk and future direction. At the end I have find out some interpretation of the findings and gave recommendation.

Is this the question you were looking for? If so, place your order here to get started!

Monetary policy of Kazakhstan

Is this the question you were looking for? If so, place your order here to get started!