Exam questions and answers for Business Ethics Question

Exam questions and answers for Business Ethics Question:- Chap 7

  1. Two general and connected understandings of privacy have been identified: privacy as a right to be ‘left alone’ within a personal zone of solitude, and privacy as the:
    a. right to understand one’s emotions.
    b. right to understand others’ emotions.
    c. right to control information about others.
    d. right to control information about oneself.
    Answer: d
  2. Values that are fundamental across culture and theory are called:
    a. authentic norms.
    b. hypernorms.
    c. ethnocentric norms.
    d. executive norms.
    Answer: b
  3. According to Donaldson and Dunfee, examples of hypernorms include the right to:
    a. a safe workplace.
    b. public information.
    c. personal freedom.
    d. vote.
    Answer: c
  4. According to Donaldson and Dunfee, the right to _____ is an example of a hypernorm.
    a. a safe workplace.
    b. public information.
    c. vote
    d. physical movement
    Answer: d
  5. Which of the following is true about privacy?
    a. The right to privacy is not restricted by any social contract.
    b. Privacy cannot be legally protected by common law.
    c. Privacy can be legally protected by the constitution.
    d. The right to privacy is unrelated to the universal right to autonomy.
    Answer: c
  6. _____ refers to the body of law comprised of the decisions handed down by courts, rather than specified in any particular statutes or regulations.
    a. Statutory law
    b. Common law
    c. Civil law
    d. Constitutional law
    Answer: b
  7. The Constitution’s Fourth Amendment protection against an unreasonable search and seizure governs only the public sector workplace because:
    a. unions exist only in public sector organizations.
    b. the private sector does not cater to appeals of unreasonable search or seizure.
    c. the Constitution applies only to state action.
    d. only public sector organizations deal with classified information.
    Answer: c
  8. Which of the following prohibits the “interception” or unauthorized access of stored communications?
    a. The Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986
    b. The Computer Security Act of 1987
    c. The Privacy Act of 1974
    d. The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986
    Answer: a
  9. The impact of the ECPA is to punish electronic monitoring only by third parties and not by employers because courts have ruled that “interception” applies only:
    a. to access of messages by employers.
    b. when monitoring is done without consent.
    c. when employees file a case.
    d. to messages in transit.
    Answer: d
  10. Which of the following statements about the Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 is true?
    a. Courts have ruled that the “interception” of stored communications applies only to messages that have actually reached company computers.
    b. A firm that secures employee consent to monitoring at the time of hire is immune from ECPA liability.
    c. The impact of the ECPA is to punish electronic monitoring only by employers.
    d. The ECPA does not allow interception even when consent has been granted.
    Answer: b
  11. Name the legal violation that occurs when someone intentionally interferes on the private affairs of another when the interference would be “highly offensive to a reasonable person.”
    a. Calumny
    b. Vilification
    c. Intrusion into seclusion
    d. Defamation
    Answer: c
  12. If the basis for finding an invasion of privacy is often the employee’s legitimate and reasonable expectation of privacy, then a situation where there is no real expectation of privacy occurs when the:
    a. employee has actual notice.
    b. employer is covered under the ECPA.
    c. work requires transference of sensitive data.
    d. employee belongs to a minority group.
    Answer: a
  13. Which of the following states in the U.S. requires employers to notify workers when they are being monitored?
    a. Ohio
    b. Illinois
    c. Michigan
    d. Connecticut
    Answer: d
  14. Which of the following is true about the European Union’s Directive on Personal Data Protection?
    a. It prohibits EU firms from transferring personal information to a non-EU country unless that country maintains “adequate protections” of its own.
    b. It is also known as the European Union Safe Harbor Act.
    c. It encourages member countries to maintain myriad standards for information gathering and protection.
    d. It states that United States in the only non-member country that maintains “adequate protection” of personal
    data.
    Answer: a
  15. The U.S. Department of Commerce negotiated a Safe Harbor exception:
    a. because the U.S. would not qualify as having adequate protection.
    b. so that the European Union could get access to personal information.
    c. so that each European country could maintain its own standard of information gathering and protection while trading with the U.S.
    d. because the law required that all imports to the European Union meet the Safe Harbor standards.
    Answer: a
  16. According to economist Antonio Argandona, which of the following elements would include issues relating to company secrets, espionage, and intelligence gathering?
    a. Truthfulness and accuracy
    b. Respect for property and safety rights
    c. Respect for privacy
    d. Accountability
    Answer: c
  17. Which of the following is true about technology and its usage?
    a. It prohibits access to any information that was once easily accessible.
    b. It ensures that the lines between people’s personal lives and professional lives are not blurred.
    c. It tends to cause facelessness that is a challenge that has to be met.
    d. It allows users to be much more careful with their communications.
    Answer: c
  18. When we do not get to know someone because we do not have to see that person in order to do our business, we often do not take into account the impact of our decisions on him or her. This is the challenge posed by the:
    a. facelessness that results from the use of new technology accessible in the workplace.
    b. knowledge gap that exists between people who understand the technology and others who do not understand it.
    c. lack of clear boundaries between people’s personal and professional lives.
    d. assumption by users of technology that the Internet is safe.
    Answer: a
  19. Which of the following is an advantage of monitoring?
    a. Monitoring tends to promote effective performance since it reduces employees’ stress and pressure.
    b. Monitoring tends to create a friendly workplace without any suspicions.
    c. Monitoring increases the level of worker autonomy and respect, as well as workers’ right to control their environment.
    d. Monitoring allows to ensure effective performance by preventing the loss of productivity to inappropriate technology use.
    Answer: d
  20. The desire to place workers in appropriate positions, to ensure compliance with affirmative action requirements, or to administer workplace benefits is sufficient reason for employers to undertake employee _____.
    a. training
    b. orientation
    c. monitoring
    d. drug testing
    Answer: c
  21. Which of the following is an advantage of drug testing?
    a. Drug testing does not present any ethical challenges for employers.
    b. Drug testing tends to provide a productivity benefit for companies.
    c. There are no possibilities of incorrect presumptions in connection with drug testing.
    d. There are no legal issues relating to monitoring employees through drug testing.
    Answer: b
  22. From a utilitarian perspective, individual rights to privacy or right to control information about oneself may be outweighed in cases where:
    a. public safety is at risk.
    b. the employee compensation package is very high.
    c. the proposed benefit to the employer is high.
    d. employee productivity depends directly on the number of hours they put in.
    Answer: a
  23. Which of the following acts stipulates that employers cannot use “protected health information” in making employment decisions without prior consent?
    a. The Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act
    b. The Federal Information Security Management Act
    c. The Personal Information and Health Documents Act
    d. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
    Answer: d
  24. Identify the situation prohibited by The Genetic Information Non-Discrimination Act of 2008 (GINA).
    a. An employer releases genetic information about an employee in response to a court order.
    b. An employer releases genetic information about an employee in connection with the employee’s compliance to the certification provisions of the Family and Medical Leave Act.
    c. An employer releases genetic information about an employee to a health researcher.
    d. An employer releases genetic information about an employee to the human resource department differentiate among employees.
    Answer: d
  25. Which of the following statements about the Genetic Information Non-Discrimination Act of 2009 (GINA) is true?
    a. Under GINA, an employer can collect genetic information in order to monitor the biological effects of toxic substances in the workplace.
    b. Under GINA, an employer is subject to the same conditions as under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA).
    c. Under GINA, an employer cannot collect genetic information in order to comply with the Family Medical Leave Act.
    d. Under GINA, an employer cannot release genetic information about an employee to a public health agency.
    Answer: a
  26. Which of the following is a disadvantage of monitoring?
    a. Monitoring tends to constrain effective performance since it can cause increased stress and pressure.
    b. Monitoring prevents employers from managing their workplaces to place workers in appropriate positions.
    c. Monitoring does not allow managers to ensure compliance with affirmative action requirements.
    d. Monitoring cannot be utilized to prevent the loss of productivity due to inappropriate technology use.
    Answer: a
  27. Which of the following statements is true about monitoring?
    a. It reduces workers’ right to control their environment without reducing the level of worker autonomy and respect.
    b. It has the potential to cause physical disorders such as carpal tunnel syndrome.
    c. It does not have a negative impact on performance.
    d. It can lead to mental pressures, but health problems have not been reported.
    Answer: b
  28. Which of the following is true about the “Hawthorne Effect”?
    a. According to the Hawthorne effect, workers’ productivity improves when they are singled out.
    b. According to the Hawthorne effect, workers show poor performance when they know that they are being monitored.
    c. The Hawthorne effect allows managers to monitor their employees effectively.
    d. The Hawthorne effect only occurs when the mechanisms used to monitor employees are unethical.
    Answer: a
  29. Employees will be on their best behavior during phone calls if they know that those calls are being monitored. Identify this effect of employee monitoring.
    a. The placebo effect
    b. The observer-expectancy effect
    c. The Hawthorne effect
    d. The halo effect
    Answer: c
  30. An employer can resolve the concerns related to the “Hawthorne Effect” through:
    a. notified, random monitoring.
    b. consented, selective monitoring.
    c. selective, notified monitoring.
    d. random, anonymous monitoring.
    Answer: d
  31. If an employee’s weight is evidence of or results from a disability, the employer must explore whether the worker is otherwise qualified for the position. Under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), the individual is considered “otherwise qualified” if she or he:
    a. has prior work experience relevant to the position, even if she or he is not able to perform the functions of the position due to the disability.
    b. can perform normal daily activities like taking a bath and eating.
    c. can perform the functions of the position with or without reasonable accommodations.
    d. has a good academic record and good conduct.
    Answer: c
  32. Some companies have a(n) _____ policy under which an employer refuses to hire or terminates a worker on the basis of the spouse’s working at the same firm.
    a. anti-nepotism
    b. conflict-of-interest
    c. anti-fraternization
    d. antitrust
    Answer: a
  33. Which of the following about the regulation of off-work acts in the U.S. is true?
    a. Many states ban discrimination on the basis of weight.
    b. Laws that protect employees against discrimination based on marital status exist in just under half of the states.
    c. Only a small minority of states protect employees against discrimination on the basis of political involvement.
    d. Lifestyle discrimination tends to be lawful if the imposition of the rule treats one protected group differently than another.
    Answer: b
  34. Identify the policy under which an employer refuses to hire or terminates a worker whose spouse works at a competing firm.
    a. Anti-nepotism policy
    b. Antitrust policy
    c. Affirmative action policy
    d. Conflict-of-interest policy
    Answer: d
  35. Most statutes or common law decisions provide for employer defenses for all of the following EXCEPT:
    a. those rules that are reasonable and rationally related to the employment activities of a particular employee.
    b. those rules that treat one group differently from another considering lifestyle practices.
    c. those rules that are necessary to avoid a conflict of interest or the appearance of conflict of interest.
    d. those rules that constitute a “bona fide occupational requirement.”
    Answer: b
  36. Identify the act that expanded states’ rights with regard to Internet surveillance technology, including workplace surveillance, and amended the Electronic Communications Privacy Act.
    a. The USA PATRIOT Act
    b. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act
    c. The Federal Information Security Management Act
    d. The Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act
    Answer: a
  37. Which of the following acts grants access to sensitive data with only a court order rather than a judicial warrant and imposes or enhances civil and criminal penalties for knowingly or intentionally aiding terrorists?
    a. The Federal Information Security Management Act
    b. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act
    c. The USA PATRIOT Act
    d. The Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act
    Answer: c
  38. Title II of the USA PATRIOT Act provides roving surveillance authority under the:
    a. Federal Information Security Management Act to track website access of individuals.
    b. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act to track individuals.
    c. Electronic Communications Surveillance Act to track business transactions.
    d. International Surveillance of Terrorists Act to track individuals in countries with diplomatic relations.
    Answer: b
  39. Which of the following is true about the USA PATRIOT Act?
    a. The act does not grant access to sensitive data with only a court order.
    b. The act expands states’ rights with regard to Internet surveillance technology.
    c. The act excludes provisions designed to combat money laundering activity.
    d. The act does not enhance civil and criminal penalties for intentionally aiding terrorists.
    Answer: b

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