Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing 10th Edition Marquis
Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing 10th Edition Marquis Huston Test Bank Chapter 1 Decision Making, Problem Solving, Critical Thinking, and Clinical Reasoning: Requisites for success ful leadership and management 1. What statement is true regarding decision making? A) It is an analysis of a situation B) It is closely related to evaluation C) It involves choosing between courses of action D) It is dependent upon finding the cause of a problem Ans: C Feedback: Decision making is a complex cognitive process often defined as choosing a particular course of action. Problem solving is part of decision making and is a systematic process that focuses on analyzing a difficult situation. Critical thinking, sometimes referred to as reflective thinking, is related to evaluation and has a broader scope than decision making and problem solving. 2. What 1. A) Its need for implementation time 2. B) Its lack of a step requiring evaluation of results 3. C) Its failure to gather sufficient data 4. D) Its failure to evaluate alternatives Ans: A Feedback: The traditional problem-solving model is less effective when time constraints are a consideration. Decision making can occur without the full analysis required in problem solving. Because problem solving attempts to identify the root problem in situations, much time and energy are spent on identifying the real problem. 3. Which of the following statements is true regarding decision making? 1. A) Scientific methods provide identical decisions by different individuals for the same problems 2. B) Decisions are greatly influenced by each persons value system 3. C) Personal beliefs can be adjusted for when the scientific approach to problem solving is used 4. D) Past experience has little to do with the quality of the decision Ans: B Feedback: Values, life experience, individual preference, and individual ways of thinking will influence a persons decision making. No matter how objective the criteria will be, value judgments will always play a part in a persons decision making, either consciously or subconsciously. is a weakness of the traditional problem-solving model? Page 1 4. What influences the quality of a decision most often? A) The decision makers immediate superior B) The type of decision that needs to be made C) Questions asked and alternatives generated D) The time of day the decision is made Ans: C Feedback: The greater the number of alternatives that can be generated by the decision maker, the better the final decision will be. The alternatives generated and the final choices are limited by each persons value system. 5. What 1. A) Good decision makers are usually right-brain, intuitive thinkers 2. B) Effective decision makers are sensitive to the situation and to others 3. C) Good decisions are usually made by left-brain, logical thinkers 4. D) Good decision making requires analytical rather than creative processes Ans: B Feedback: Good decision makers seem to have antennae that make them particularly sensitive to other people and situations. Left-brain thinkers are typically better at processing language, logic, numbers, and sequential ordering, whereas right-brain thinkers excel at nonverbal ideation and holistic synthesizing. does knowledge about good decision making lead one to believe? 6. What 1. A) The planning process of management 2. B) The evaluation phase of the executive role 3. C) One step in the problem-solving process 4. D) Required to justify the need for scarce items Ans: C Feedback: Decision making is a complex, cognitive process often defined as choosing a particular course of action. Decision making, one step in the problem-solving process, is an important task that relies heavily on critical thinking and clinical reasoning skills. is the best definition of decision making? Page 2 7. If decision making is triggered by a problem with what does it end? 1. A) An alternative problem 2. B) A chosen course of action 3. C) An action that guarantees success 4. D) A restatement of the solution Ans: B Feedback: A decision is made when a course of action has been chosen. Problem solving is part of decision making and is a systematic process that focuses on analyzing a difficult situation. Problem solving always includes a decision-making step. 8. Why do our values often cause personal conflict in decision making? 1. A) Some values are not realistic or healthy 2. B) Not all values are of equal worth 3. C) Our values remain unchanged over time 4. D) Our values often collide with one another Ans: D Feedback: Values, life experience, individual preference, and individual ways of thinking will influence a persons decision making. No matter how objective the criteria will be, value judgments will always play a part in a persons decision making, either consciously or subconsciously. 9. Which statement is true concerning critical thinking? 1. A) It is a simple approach to decision making 2. B) It is narrower in scope than decision making 3. C) It requires reasoning and creative analysis 4. D) It is a synonym for the problem-solving process Ans: C Feedback: Critical thinking has a broader scope than decision making and problem solving. It is sometimes referred to as reflective thinking. Critical thinking also involves reflecting upon the meaning of statements, examining the offered evidence and reasoning, and forming judgments about facts. Page 3 10. How do administrative man managers make the majority of their decisions? 1. A) After gathering all the facts 2. B) In a manner good enough to solve the problem 3. C) In a rational, logical manner 4. D) After generating all the alternatives possible Ans: B Feedback: Many managers make decisions that are just igood enoughi because of lack of time, energy, or creativity to generate a number of alternatives. This is also called isatisficing.i Most people make decisions too quickly and fail to systematically examine a problem or its alternatives for solution. 11. What 1. A) Is evaluation necessary when using a good decision-making model? 2. B) Can evaluation be eliminated if the problem is resolved? 3. C) Will the effectiveness of the decision maker be supported? 4. D) Will the evaluation be helpful in increasing ones decision-making skills? Ans: D Feedback: The evaluation phase is necessary to find out more about ones ability as a decision maker and to find out where the decision making was faulty. 12. Which statement concerning the role of the powerful in organizational decision making is true? 1. A) They exert little influence on decisions that are made 2. B) They make decisions made that are in congruence with their own values 3. C) They allow others to make the decisions however they wish 4. D) They make all the important decisions with consideration to others Ans: B Feedback: Not only does the preference of the powerful influence decisions of others in the organization, but the powerful are also able to inhibit the preferences of the less powerful. Powerful people in organizations are more likely to have decisions made that are congruent with their own preferences and values. needs to be considered in evaluating the quality of ones decisions? Page 4 13. One of the nurses on the unit said, iMale patients have a low threshold for pain.i This is an example of what type of illogical thinking? A) B) C) D) Ans: Feedback: This type of icrookedi thinking occurs when one believes that because A has a particular characteristic, every other A also has the same characteristic. This kind of thinking is exemplified when stereotypical statements are used to justify arguments and decisions. 14. What effect of organizational power on decision making is often reflected in the tendency of staff? 1. A) Making decisions independent of organizational values 2. B) Not trusting others to decide 3. C) Desiring personal power 4. D) Having private beliefs that are separate from corporate ones Ans: D Feedback: The ability of the powerful to influence individual decision making in an organization often requires adopting a private personality and an organizational personality. Affirming the consequences Arguing from analogy Deductive reasoning Overgeneralizing D 15. What 1. A) Examine alternatives visually and compare each against the same criteria 2. B) Quantify information 3. C) Plot a decision over time 4. D) Predict when events must take place to complete a project on time Ans: A Feedback: A decision grid allows one to visually examine the alternatives and compare each against the same criteria. Although any criteria may be selected, the same criteria are used to analyze each alternative. does a decision grid allow the decision maker to do? Page 5 16. What statement regarding management decision-making aides is true? A) They are subject to human error B) They ensure good decision making C) They eliminate uncertainty and risk D) They tend to save management time Ans: A Feedback: Management decision-making aides are subject to human error. Some of these aides encourage analytical thinking, others are designed to increase intuitive reasoning, and a few encourage the use of both hemispheres of the brain. Despite the helpfulness of these tools, there is a strong tendency for managers to favor first impressions when making a decision, and a second tendency, called confirmation biases, often follows. 17. What 1. A) Discrete, unconscious process to allow individuals to solve problems quickly 2. B) Set of rules to encourage learners to discover solutions for themselves 3. C) Formal process and structure in the decision-making process 4. D) Trial-and-error method or rules-of-thumb approach Ans: A Feedback: Most individuals rely on discrete, often unconscious processes known as heuristics, which allows them to solve problems more quickly and to build upon experiences they have gained in their lives. Thus, heuristics use trial-and-error methods or a rules-of- thumb approach, rather than set rules, and in doing so, encourages learners to discover solutions for themselves. 18. Which statement is true regarding an economic man style manager? 1. A) Lacks complete knowledge and generates few alternatives 2. B) Makes decisions that may not be ideal but result in solutions that have an adequate outcome 3. C) Makes most management decisions using the administrative man model of decision making 4. D) These managers gather as much information as possible and generate many alternatives Ans: D Feedback: Economic managers gather as much information as possible and generate many alternatives. Most management decisions are made by using the administrative man model of decision making. The administrative man never has complete knowledge and generates fewer alternatives. is heuristics? Page 6 19. What is a characteristic of a left-brain thinker? A) Creative B) Intuitive C) Analytical D) Holistic Ans: C Feedback: Analytical, linear, left-brain thinkers process information differently from creative, intuitive, right-brain thinkers. Left-brain thinkers are typically better at processing language, logic, numbers, and sequential ordering, whereas right-brain thinkers excel at nonverbal ideation and holistic synthesizing. 20. What type of brain dominance creates a management style that is highly organized and detail oriented? 1. A) Upper left brain 2. B) Upper right brain 3. C) Lower left brain 4. D) Lower right brain Ans: C Feedback: Individuals with lower-left-brain dominance are highly organized and detail oriented and individuals with upper-left-brain dominance truly are analytical thinkers who like working with factual data and numbers. These individuals deal with problems in a logical and rational way. Individuals with upper-right-brain dominance are big picture thinkers who look for hidden possibilities and are futuristic in their thinking. Individuals with lower-right-brain dominance experience facts and problem solve in a more emotional way than the other three types. 21. Which problem-solving learning strategy provides the learner with the most realistic, risk-free learning environment? 1. A) Case studies 2. B) Simulation 3. C) Problem-based learning (PBL) 4. D) Grand rounds Ans: B Feedback: Simulation provides learners opportunities for problem solving that have little or no risk to patients or to organizational performance while providing models, either mechanical or live, to provide experiences for the learner. While the other options provide learning opportunities that include problem solving, simulation is the most realistic while also being low risk. Page 7 22. Which statement demonstrates a characteristic of a critical thinker? Select all that apply. 1. A) iSince that didnt work effectively, lets try something different.i 2. B) iThe solution has to be something the patient is willing to do.i 3. C) iIll talk to the patients primary care giver about the problem.i 4. D) iMaybe there is no new solution to this particular problem.i Ans: A, B, C Feedback: A critical thinker displays persistence, empathy, and assertiveness. The remaining options reflect limited thinking and an inability to think outside the box. 23. What is the value of using a structured approach to problem solving for the novice nurse? 1. A) Facilitates effective time management 2. B) Supports the acquisition of clinical reasoning 3. C) Supplements the orientation process 4. D) Encourages professional autonomy Ans: B Feedback: A structured approach to problem solving and decision making increases clinical reasoning and is the best way to learn how to make quality decisions because it eliminates trial and error and focuses the learning on a proven process. This is particularly helpful to the novice nurse with limited clinical experience and intuition. The other options are outcomes of the possession of critical thinking skills and clinical reasoning. 24. Which situation is characteristic of the weakness of the nursing process? 1. A) The frequent absence of well-written patience-focused objectives 2. B) The confusion created by the existence of numerous nursing diagnoses 3. C) The ever-increasing need for effective assessment skills required of the nurse 4. D) The amount of nursing staff required to implement the patients plans of care Ans: A Feedback: The weakness of the nursing process, like the traditional problem-solving model, is in not requiring clearly stated objectives. Goals should be clearly stated in the planning phase of the process, but this step is frequently omitted or obscured. While the remaining options relate to the nursing process, they are not directly a result of the process itself. Page 8 25. What is the advantage of using a payoff table when applicable? A) It assures the correct decision when dealing with financial situations B) It is very helpful when quantitative information about the topic is available C) It assists in the visualization of the available historic and current data D) It is easy to construct even for the novice decision maker Ans: C Feedback: Payoff tables do not guarantee that a correct decision will be made, but they assist in visualizing data. While it does lend itself to the use of quantitative data that are not its strength, the table may not be difficult to construct that is not its strength since it is dependent on the inclusion of accurate data and effective evaluation of that data. Chapter 2 Classical Views of Leadership and Management 1. Which represents the management functions that are incorporated into the management process? 1. A) Planning, directing, organizing, staffing, and evaluating 2. B) Planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling 3. C) Organizing, planning, staffing, directing, and evaluating 4. D) Organizing, staffing, planning, implementing, and controlling Ans: B Feedback: Management functions include planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling. These are incorporated into what is known as the management process. 2. What 1. A) Meeting worker satisfaction 2. B) Delineating barriers to productivity 3. C) Using a laissez-faire approach 4. D) Encouraging employee participation Ans: B Feedback: Classical, or traditional, management science focuses on production in the workplace and on delineating organizational barriers to productivity. Little attention was given to worker job satisfaction, and workers were assumed to be motivated solely by economic rewards. does traditional management science focuses upon? 3. What 1. A) Workers will naturally put forth effort 2. B) Workers need threats to be motivated 3. C) Workers are diligent and responsible 4. D) Workers are in tune with organizational needs Ans: B Feedback: Theory X managers believe that their employees are basically lazy, need constant supervision and direction, and are indifferent to organizational needs. assumption about workers does Theory X hold? Page 1 4. What does the Hawthorne effect implied about people? A) Human beings under investigation will respond to the fact that they are being studied B) Production will increase or decrease as light in a factory is increased or decreased C) Membership in small groups forms social control D) People are inherently good and will seek out work Ans: A Feedback: Hawthorne effect indicated that people respond to the fact that they are being studied, attempting to increase whatever behavior they feel will continue to warrant the attention. The other statements do not reflect implied beliefs about people. 5. Managing conflict among staff members would occur in which part of the management process? 1. A) Planning 2. B) Organizing 3. C) Directing 4. D) Evaluating Ans: C Feedback: Directing sometimes includes several staffing functions. However, this phases functions usually entail human resource management responsibilities, such as motivating, managing conflict, delegating, communicating, and facilitating collaboration. Planning encompasses determining philosophy, goals, objectives, policies, procedures, and rules; carrying out long- and short-range projections; determining a fiscal course of action; and managing planned change. Organizing includes establishing the structure to carry out plans, determining the most appropriate type of patient care delivery, and grouping activities to meet unit goals. 6. What is the idea that workers should be hired, trained, and promoted based on their competence and abilities related to? 1. A) Part of the management functions identified by Fayol 2. B) The result of the human relations studies 3. C) The outcome of studies done by Mayo at the Hawthorne Works 4. D) One of the four overriding principles of scientific management Ans: D Feedback: Frederick Taylor, the ifather of scientific management,i had the idea that workers should be hired, trained, and promoted based on their competence and abilities. This concept is not associated with any of the other options. Page 2 7. Max Weber, a well-known German sociologist, began to study large-scale organizations to determine what made some more efficient than others. What was his conclusion? 1. A) Workers had to have a say in management to work most effectively 2. B) Consistent rules and regulations for workers increased efficiency 3. C) Employees should feel appreciated and valued 4. D) Workers need frequent rest periods to increase overall production Ans: B Feedback: Weber saw the need for legalized, formal authority and consistent rules and regulations for personnel in different positions. He thus proposed bureaucracy as an organizational design. None of the other options reflect his conclusions. 8. Which leadership style maintains strong control over the work group and uses coercion to motivate others? 1. A) Authoritarian 2. B) Democratic 3. C) Laissez-faire 4. D) A contingency approach Ans: A Feedback: Lewin identified three common leadership styles: authoritarian, democratic, and laissez- faire. Authoritarian leadership results in well-defined group actions that are usually predictable, reducing frustration in the work group and giving members a feeling of security. Productivity is usually high, but creativity, self-motivation, and autonomy are reduced. Authoritarian leadership is frequently found in very large bureaucracies such as the armed forces. Coercion to motivate is not associated with the other options. 9. Which statement about situational or contingency leadership theory is correct? 1. A) High relationship behavior is much more essential to a good manager than high task behavior 2. B) This leadership model is effective in bureaucratic organizations because it is task focused 3. C) Management should be consistent in different situations so workers understand what is expected of them 4. D) The leadership style chosen by a manager should reflect the task/relationship behavior of those being managed Ans: D Feedback: The idea that leadership style should vary according to the situation or the individuals involved was first suggested almost 100 years ago by Mary Parker Follett, one of the earliest management consultants and among the first to view an organization as a social system of contingencies. The other options present statements that are incorrect. Page 3 10. Which statement depicts leadership? 1. A) A leadership position is assigned 2. B) A leadership position carries a legitimate source of power 3. C) Members of a group will follow a person in a leadership position only by choice 4. D) Leadership requires meeting organizational goals Ans: C Feedback: A leader is the person who guides direction, opinion, and course of action without having an assigned position within the formal organization and so people choose to follow them. The other options are not accurate descriptions of leadership. 11. Gardner states that integrated leaders-managers distinguish themselves from more traditional managers in six ways. Which is a distinguishing trait of a traditional manager rather than an integrated leader-manager? 1. A) They are politically astute 2. B) They look outward, toward the larger organization 3. C) They extend influence only to their own group 4. D) They emphasize vision, values, and motivation Ans: C Feedback: Traditional managers influence those in their own groups while integrated leaders influence others beyond their own group. The remaining options represent traits that may be shared by both types. 12. What 1. A) Leadership is a process of influencing others within an organizational culture 2. B) The interactive relationship between the leader and the follower is significant 3. C) Some are born to lead, whereas others are born to be led 4. D) Vision and empowerment are two of the most critical leadership skills Ans: C Feedback: Early leadership theorists focused on broad conceptualizations of leadership that assumed that people have certain characteristics or personality traits that make them better leaders than others. The remaining options do not describe a concept suggested by early leadership- theory development. concept does early leadership-theory development suggest? Page 4 13. Which is a characteristic of Theory Z? 1. A) Non-consensus decision making 2. B) Fitting employees to their jobs 3. C) Rapid career promotions 4. D) Authoritative problem solving Ans: B Feedback: Characteristics of Theory Z include fitting employees to their jobs, consensus decision making, job security, slower promotions, examining the long-term consequences of management decision making, quality circles, guarantee of lifetime employment, establishment of strong bonds of responsibility between superiors and subordinates, and a holistic concern for the workers. 14. What type of leader is the person who is committed, has a vision, and is able to empower others with this vision? 1. A) Transactional 2. B) Transformational 3. C) Interactional 4. D) Bureaucratic Ans: B Feedback: Transformational leadership positively impacts the leader and the follower, who have a collective purpose. The traditional manager, concerned with the day-to-day operations, was termed a transactional leader. The remaining options are not associated with these characteristics. 15. How many primary leadership styles have been identified? 1. A) One 2. B) Two 3. C) Three 4. D) Four Ans: C Feedback: Three primary leadership styles have been identified: authoritarian, democratic, and laissez- faire. Page 5 16. What type of management was emphasized in the human relations era of management? A) Participatory B) Authoritarian C) Democratic D) Laissez-faire Ans: A Feedback: The human relations era of management science emphasized concepts of participatory and humanistic management. Three primary leadership styles have been identified: authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire. 17. What 1. A) Inward thinkers 2. B) Long-term thinkers 3. C) Concerned with employee motivation 4. D) Possess influence beyond their own group Ans: B, C, D Feedback: Gardner asserted that integrated leader-managers possess six distinguishing traits: They influence others beyond their own group; they emphasize vision, values, and motivation; they think longer term; they look outward, toward the larger organization they are politically astute; they think in terms of change and renewal. is a distinguishing trait of integrated leader-managers? Select all that apply. 18. What A) Leadership behavior is generally determined by the relationship between the is the basic premise of the interactional theory? leaders personality and the specific situation 2. B) Manager behaviors are generally determined by the relationship between the managers personality and the specific situation. 3. C) Both managers and followers have the ability to raise each other to higher levels of motivation and morality. 4. D) Both leaders and followers have the ability to raise each other to higher levels of motivation and morality. Ans: A Feedback: The basic premise of interactional theory is that leadership behavior is generally determined by the relationship between the leaders personality and the specific situation. Transformational leadership is where both leaders and followers have the ability to raise each other to higher levels of motivation and morality. Page 6 19. It is the idea that context is an important mediator of transformational leadership, that led to the creation of full range leadership theory early in the 21st century. This theory originally developed by Antonakis, Avolio, and Sivasubramaniam suggests how many transformational factors impacting leadership style and its impact on followers? 1. A) One 2. B) Three 3. C) Five 4. D) Nine Ans: C Feedback: There are nine factors impacting leadership style and its impact on followers; five are transformational, three are transactional, and one is a nonleadership or laissez-faire leadership factor. 20. What 1. A) Transactional 2. B) Transformational 3. C) Interactional 4. D) Bureaucratic Ans: A Feedback: The traditional manager, concerned with the day-to-day operations, is termed a transactional leader. This is not a characteristic of the other options. type of manager is concerned with the day-to-day operations? 21. What 1. A) Establishing a legitimate source of power 2. B) Delegating responsibilities to staff members 3. C) Formulate the budget to achieve the stated goals 4. D) Direct attention to the management of unwilling subordinates Ans: A, B, C Feedback: The manager is typically involved in the delegation of responsibilities through the power of the legitimate power associated with the position. To manipulate people, the environment, money, time, and other resources to achieve organizational goals is also a managers focus. Attention to both willing and unwilling subordinates as well as established responsibilities is associated with the role of the manager. is the typical focus of managers? Select all that apply. Page 7 22. Which activity is associated with a leadership role? Select all that apply. 1. A) Mentoring two new managers 2. B) Establishing goals for the coming year 3. C) Advocating for employee regarding personal policies 4. D) Providing a motivational speech at the new employee orientation Ans: A, B, C, D Feedback: Leadership roles include mentoring, decision making, advocating, andenergizing. Risk taking is also considered a leadership role. Continued Show Less
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