NRNP 6635 Discussion Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology

NRNP 6635 Discussion Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology

In many realms of medicine, objective diagnoses can be made: A clavicula is broken.  An infection is present. TSH levels meet the diagnostic criteria for hypothyroidism. Psychiatry, on the other hand, deals with psychological phenomena and behaviors. Can these, too, be “defined objectively and by scientific criteria (Gergen, 1985), or are they social constructions?” (Sadock et al., 2015).

Thanks to myriad advances during recent decades, we know that psychopathology is caused by many interacting factors. Theoretical and clinical contributions to the field have come from the neural sciences, genetics, psychology, and social-cultural sciences. How do these factors impact the expression, classification, diagnosis, and prevalence of psychopathology, and why might it be important for a nurse practitioner to take a multidimensional, integrative approach?

 

To Prepare:

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  • Review this week’s Learning Resources, considering the many interacting factors that contribute to the development of psychopathology.
  • Consider how theoretical perspective on psychopathology impacts the work of the PMHNP.
By Day 3 of Week 1

Explain the biological (genetic and neuroscientific); psychological (behavioral and cognitive processes, emotional, developmental); and social, cultural, and interpersonal factors that influence the development of psychopathology.

Discussion – Week 1

Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology

Biological – genetic and neuroscientific

Beck & Bredemeier (2016) point out that individual differences in genetic or trait affect have a huge role to play in shaping human behavior. Also, practitioners have established that there are certain neural substrates that vary from one person to another, thus explaining different behavioral processes in people. The same differences can predict the vulnerability of an individual to neuropsychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. For this reason, scientists have sought to understand the connection between genes, the brain, and certain behavioral to explain the differences in behavior and the subsequent psychiatric diseases. NRNP 6635 Discussion Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology

Psychological – behavioral and cognitive processes, emotional, developmental

Psychological factors are also thought to contribute to the development, maintenance, or recurrence of psychopathological states. These may include cognitive biases, impairments, or dysfunctional beliefs. These cognitive dysfunctions are closely related to relational and emotional processes, which can then contribute to certain psychopathological symptoms or disorders (Shahar, 2013).

Social, cultural, and interpersonal factors

There has been considerable research into the role played by social, cultural, and interpersonal factors towards the development of psychopathology as well. Most of them have focused on stress and any other factor that modify the influence of stress. Arguably, the world is multicultural, which means that people grow up in different cultural contexts. In one society, for instance, cases of people being attacked by evil spirits at night, which whisper and attach people rendering them immobile can be considered as normal and understandable. In the American or the Western society, however, these are signs of schizophrenia (Chentsova-Dutton & Tsai, 2007). Therefore, it is imperative to consider cultural, social, and interpersonal factors as they shape how an individual, family, or society sees mental illness.

References

NRNP 6635 Discussion Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology Beck, A. T., & Bredemeier, K. (2016). A unified model of depression: Integrating clinical, cognitive, biological, and evolutionary perspectives. Clinical Psychological Science, 4(4), 596–619.

Chentsova-Dutton, Y. E., & Tsai, J. L. (2007). Cultural factors influence the expression of psychopathology. In S. O. Lilienfeld & W. T. O’Donohue (Eds.), The great ideas of clinical science: 17 principles that every mental health professional should understand (p. 375–396). Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.

Shahar, G. (2013). Self, cognition, and psychopathology: Introduction to the special section. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 6(3), 203–207.


Read
 a selection of your colleagues’ responses

By Day 6 of Week 1

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on 2 different days by explaining the implications of why, as an advanced practice nurse, it is important to adopt a multidimensional, integrative model of psychopathology.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link, and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

RE: Discussion – Week 1

Hi S..,

I do agree that our cultural backgrounds, views, and values play a significant role in the way we both see and treat mental health. History has shown us that over time our views on mental health have changed overall, but some communities have varying progression in the realm. For most, culture provides a basis of norms (Gopalkrishnan, 2018). These norms often set the tone for what may and may not be acceptable behaviors. How might these cultural norms differ from a diagnosis? What questions can we ask to provoke useful information to help make a diagnosis? These are all important questions I think we should consider when trying to provide optimal care to our patients. Cultural competence blends into the competencies found under the initial assessment. “Collects comprehensive data including but not limited to psychiatric, substance, physical, functional, psychosocial, emotional, cognitive, sexual, cultural, age-related, environmental, spiritual/transpersonal, and economic assessments in a systematic and ongoing process while focusing on the uniqueness of the person.” (ANA, 2014) In collecting this information, the provider should use this data to individualize treatment. Such variants can even affect how we plan, implement, and deliver care.

References

American Nurses Association. (2014). Psychiatric-mental health nursing: Scope and standards of practice (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Gopalkrishnan N. (2018). Cultural Diversity and Mental Health: Considerations for Policy and Practice. Frontiers in public health6, 179. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2018.00179

RE: Discussion – Week 1

Hello Sika,

I enjoyed reading your post. I agree that genes play a significant role in human behavior and the development of mental conditions. Some mental conditions such as ADHD and schizophrenia run in the family. Psychological factors also influence mental conditions (Einstein & Klepacz, 2017). For instance, many veteran soldiers develop post-traumatic stress disorders due to emotional trauma while at war. When a person loses a loved one, they are at a high risk of developing persistent complex bereavement disorder due to the trauma of being left alone. Social factors also influence one’s mental condition. In the Black community, mental conditions are thought to be a curse or God’s punishment. This inhibits most from seeking help while the condition is still young, leading it to develop into a critical condition.

Reference

Einstein, E. H., & Klepacz, L. (2017). What influences mental illness? Discrepancies between medical education and conception. Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development4, 238212051770512. https://doi.org/10.1177/2382120517705123

Submission and Grading Information

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Week 1 Discussion Rubric

Post by Day 3 of Week 1 and Respond by Day 6 of Week 1

To Participate in this Discussion:

Week 1 Discussion


What’s Coming Up in Week 2?

In Week 2, you will be introduced to assessment and diagnosis of the psychiatric patient. You will explore elements of the psychiatric interview, history, and examination as well as psychiatric rating scales. You also will review the classification system of psychiatric disorders in the DSM-5 and the role the DSM-5 plays in diagnosis.

 

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Practicum – Upcoming Deadline

In the Nurse Practitioner programs of study (FNP, AGACNP, AGPCNP, and PMHNP) you are required to take several practicum courses. If you plan on taking a practicum course within the next two terms, you will need to submit your application via Meditrek .

For information on the practicum application process and deadlines, please visit the Field Experience: College of Nursing: Application Process – Graduate web page.

Please take the time to review the Appropriate Preceptors and Field Sites for your courses.

Please take the time to review the practicum manuals, FAQs, Webinars and any required forms on the Field Experience: College of Nursing: Student Resources and Manuals web page.

Next Week

Week 1: History and Theories of Psychopathology

The history of the diagnosis of mental disorders is fraught with examples of how cultural norms and prejudices interfere with and warp a diagnosis. The result is that normal behavior and orientations have been pathologized as an illness or disease. An example of this would be the story of Alan Turing, the famous British computer scientist of the 20th century, who was instrumental in inventing modern computers and deciphering German code in World War II. He was convicted in 1952 in England of gross indecency for being gay. Turing was forced by the courts to undergo 12 months of hormone therapy and could no longer work for the British government. At the time, homosexuality was pathologized as a mental disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and was criminalized in most Western countries. It was not until 1973 that the American Psychiatric Association (APA) finally removed homosexuality from the DSM.

Historically, the process of rendering a diagnosis has been used to pathologize those who fell outside what was considered the cultural norm of human behavior. This process often marginalized diagnosed populations and prevented individuals from receiving appropriate care. It is of utmost importance to consider cultural issues that influence how you as a clinician interpret a client’s behavior and how cultural issues influence how a client may express behavior. This week, you explore the history of psychopathology and the evolution of theoretical perspectives in the field.

Learning Objective

Students will:

  •  Analyze historical and currently recognized biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors that inform the expression, course, and prevalence of psychopathology

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce) 

Sadock, B. J., Sadock, V. A., & Ruiz, P. (2015). Kaplan & Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry (11th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.

  • Chapter 1, Neural Sciences
  • Chapter 2, Contributions of the Psychosocial Sciences
  • Chapter 3, Contributions of the Sociocultural Sciences
  • Chapter 4, Theories of Personality and Psychopathology
  • Chapter 31.17c, Child Psychiatry: Other Conditions: Identity Problem

Assignment

Practicum Manual Acknowledgment

The Practicum Manual describes the structure and timing of the classroom-based and practicum experiences and the policies students must follow to be successful in the nurse practitioner (NP) specialties.

Click here and follow the instructions to confirm you have downloaded and read the entire MSN Nurse Practitioner Practicum Manual and will abide by the requirements described in order to successfully complete this program.

Optional Discussion Forum: PMHNP Study Support Lounge

The PMHNP Study Support Lounge is offered throughout the course as a place of academic refuge, where you can ask questions, offer insights, and interact with your peers. Your Instructor may also weigh in to provide global feedback to the group based on trends, common problems, and common strengths in student posts.

As a peer, you are encouraged to provide constructive, helpful feedback to your peers. Advanced practice nurses always benefit from the feedback of others. Your Study Support Lounge posts may be procedural (“How do I attach a Kaltura video to a Discussion post?”), conceptual (“How does this relate to the other therapy approaches we have studied?”), or analytical (“What do these diagnostic results actually mean in the context of this specific patient case?”). Although not mandatory, this is an opportunity to interact and study together as you navigate the assignments, so you are highly encouraged to take part in this activity. Full participation in activities like these is a statistically significant predictor of success.

To Participate in this Optional Discussion:

PMHNP Study Support Lounge

Rubric Detail

Select Grid View or List View to change the rubric’s layout.

Name: NRNP_6635_Week1_Discussion_Rubric
Grid View
List View
Excellent Good Fair Poor
Main Posting:

Response to the discussion question is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources.
40 (40%) – 44 (44%)
Thoroughly responds to the discussion question(s).

Is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources.

No less than 75% of post has exceptional depth and breadth.

Supported by at least 3 current credible sources.
35 (35%) – 39 (39%)
Responds to most of the discussion question(s).

Is somewhat reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

50% of the post has exceptional depth and breadth.

Supported by at least 3 credible references.
31 (31%) – 34 (34%)
Responds to some of the discussion question(s).

One to two criteria are not addressed or are superficially addressed.

Is somewhat lacking reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

Somewhat represents knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

Post is cited with fewer than 2 credible references.
0 (0%) – 30 (30%)
Does not respond to the discussion question(s).

Lacks depth or superficially addresses criteria.

Lacks reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

Does not represent knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

Contains only 1 or no credible references.
Main Posting:

Writing
6 (6%) – 6 (6%)
Written clearly and concisely.

Contains no grammatical or spelling errors.

Further adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.
5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Written concisely.

May contain one to two grammatical or spelling errors.

Adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.
4 (4%) – 4 (4%)
Written somewhat concisely.

May contain more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

Contains some APA formatting errors.
0 (0%) – 3 (3%)
Not written clearly or concisely.

Contains more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

Does not adhere to current APA manual writing rules and style.
Main Posting:

Timely and full participation
9 (9%) – 10 (10%)
Meets requirements for timely, full, and active participation.

Posts main discussion by due date.
8 (8%) – 8 (8%)
Posts main discussion by due date.

Meets requirements for full participation.
7 (7%) – 7 (7%)
Posts main discussion by due date.
0 (0%) – 6 (6%)
Does not meet requirements for full participation.

Does not post main discussion by due date.
First Response:

Post to colleague’s main post that is reflective and justified with credible sources.
9 (9%) – 9 (9%)
Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

Responds to questions posed by faculty.

The use of scholarly sources to support ideas demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives.
8 (8%) – 8 (8%)
Response has some depth and may exhibit critical thinking or application to practice setting.
7 (7%) – 7 (7%)
Response is on topic, may have some depth.
0 (0%) – 6 (6%)
Response may not be on topic, lacks depth.
First Response:

Writing
6 (6%) – 6 (6%)
Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Response to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.

Response is effectively written in Standard, Edited English.
5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Communication is mostly professional and respectful to colleagues.

Response to faculty questions are mostly answered, if posed.

Provides opinions and ideas that are supported by few credible sources.

Response is written in Standard, Edited English.
4 (4%) – 4 (4%)
Response posed in the discussion may lack effective professional communication.

Response to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

Few or no credible sources are cited.
0 (0%) – 3 (3%)
Responses posted in the discussion lack effective communication.

Response to faculty questions are missing.

No credible sources are cited.
First Response:

Timely and full participation
5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Meets requirements for timely, full, and active participation.

Posts by due date.
4 (4%) – 4 (4%)
Meets requirements for full participation.

Posts by due date.
3 (3%) – 3 (3%)
Posts by due date.
0 (0%) – 2 (2%)
Does not meet requirements for full participation.

Does not post by due date.
Second Response:

Post to colleague’s main post that is reflective and justified with credible sources.
9 (9%) – 9 (9%)
Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

Responds to questions posed by faculty.

The use of scholarly sources to support ideas demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives.
8 (8%) – 8 (8%)
Response has some depth and may exhibit critical thinking or application to practice setting.
7 (7%) – 7 (7%)
Response is on topic, may have some depth.
0 (0%) – 6 (6%)
Response may not be on topic, lacks depth.
Second Response:

Writing
6 (6%) – 6 (6%)
Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Response to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.

Response is effectively written in Standard, Edited English.
5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Communication is mostly professional and respectful to colleagues.

Response to faculty questions are mostly answered, if posed.

Provides opinions and ideas that are supported by few credible sources.

Response is written in Standard, Edited English.
4 (4%) – 4 (4%)
Response posed in the discussion may lack effective professional communication.

Response to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

Few or no credible sources are cited.
0 (0%) – 3 (3%)
Responses posted in the discussion lack effective communication.

Response to faculty questions are missing.

No credible sources are cited.
Second Response:

Timely and full participation
5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Meets requirements for timely, full, and active participation.

Posts by due date.
4 (4%) – 4 (4%)
Meets requirements for full participation.

Posts by due date.
3 (3%) – 3 (3%)
Posts by due date.
0 (0%) – 2 (2%)
Does not meet requirements for full participation.

Does not post by due date.
Total Points: 100
Name: NRNP_6635_Week1_Discussion_Rubric

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