NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology Week 1 Quiz

NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology Week 1 Quiz

A 12-year-old male is diagnosed with Klinefelter syndrome. His karyotype would reveal which of the following?

XXY

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The nurse is teaching staff about the most common cause of Down syndrome. What is the nurse describing?

Maternal nondisjunction

 

A nurse is discussing the movement of fluid across the arterial end of capillary membranes into the interstitial fluid surrounding the capillary. Which process of fluid movement is the nurse describing?

Hydrostatic pressure

 

What principle should the nurse remember when trying to distinguish aging from disease?

It is difficult to tell the difference because both processes are believed to result from cell injury.

 

What causes the rapid change in the resting membrane potential that initiates an action potential?

Sodium gates open, and sodium rushes into the cell, changing the membrane potential from negative to positive.

 

During childhood, the thymus decreases in size, and this is referred to as _____ atrophy.

Physiologic NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology Week 1 Quiz

 

Sodium and water accumulation in an injured cell are a direct result of:

Decreased ATP production

 

A 50-year-old male was recently diagnosed with Huntington disease. Transmission of this disease is associated with:

Delayed age of onset

 
 

What is the diagnosis of a 13-year-old female who has a karyotype that reveals an absent homologous X chromosome with only a single X chromosome? Her features include a short stature, widely spaced nipples, reduced carrying angle at the elbow, and sparse body hair.

Turner Syndrome

 

What is the role of cytokines in cell production?

Provide growth factor for tissue growth and development

 

A eukaryotic cell is undergoing DNA replication. In which region of the cell would most of the genetic information be contained?

Nucleolus

 

A patient has severe mental retardation caused by a deletion of part of chromosome 5. What genetic disorder will the nurse see documented in the chart?

Cri du chat syndrome NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology Week 1 Quiz

 

The student is reviewing functions of the cell. The student would be correct in identifying the primary function of the nerve cell as:

Communication

 

How are potassium and sodium transported across plasma membranes?

By adenosine triphosphate enzyme (ATPase)

 

After a geneticist talks to the patient about being a chromosomal mosaic, the patient as the nurse what that means. How should the nurse respond?  You may ____ genetic disease(s).

Have a mild form of the

 

A runner has depleted all the oxygen available for muscle energy. Which of the following will facilitate his continued muscle performance? NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology Week 1 Quiz

Anaerobic glycolysis

 

A patient who has diarrhea receives a hypertonic saline solution intravenously to replace the sodium and chloride lost in the stool. What effect will this fluid replacement have on cells?

Cells will shrink

 

A patient has a heart attack that leads to progressive cell injury that causes cell death with severe cell swelling and breakdown of organelles. What term would the nurse use to define this process?

Necrosis

 

A nurse reading the chart and sees the term oncotic pressure. The nurse recalls that oncotic pressure (colloid osmotic pressure) is determined by:

Plasma proteins

 

An aide asks the nurse why people who have neurofibromatosis will show varying degrees of the disease. Which genetic principle should the nurse explain to the aide?

Expressivity

 

A cell is isolated, and electrophysiology studies reveal that the resting membrane potential is -70 millivolts. The predominant intracellular ion is Na+, and the predominant extracellular ion is K+.  With voltage change, which of the following would result in an action potential?

Na+ rushing into the cell

 

A 13-year-old girl has a karyotype that reveals an absent homologous X chromosome with only a single X chromosome present. What medical diagnosis will the nurse observe in the chart?

Turner syndrome

 

A 15-year-old female is diagnosed with Prader-Willi syndrome. This condition is an example of:

Gene imprinting

 

A 55-year-old male with a 30-year history of smoking is examined for respiratory disturbance. Examination of his airway (bronchial) reveals that stratified squamous epithelial cells have replaced the normal columnar ciliated cells.  This type of cellular adaptation is called:

Metaplasia

 

A group of prison inmates developed tuberculosis following exposure to an infected inmate. On examination, tissues were soft and granular (like clumped cheese).  Which of the following is the most likely cause?

Caseous necrosis NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology Week 1 Quiz

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