NURS 6660 Week 2 Discussion Assessment in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

NURS 6660 Week 2 Discussion Assessment in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
NURS 6660
Week 2 Main Posting
Why Development assessment of children and adolescent important
Developmental assessment is a part of comprehensive medical care and it is a process of mapping a child’s performance compared with children of a similar age from a similar population (CDC, 2018). It is important because it helps highlight normal development pattern and timings. Also, it helps identify areas of regression or areas with a specific impairment that requires being referred for specialist assessment (CDC, 2018).
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Assessment Instruments Used for Children and Adolescents
The two-assessment instruments that are used specifically for the children and adolescent are the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA) and the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents (DICA). CAPA is an interviewer-based diagnostic interview with versions for use with children and their parents. The interview covers the age range from 9 to 17 years and it focused on symptoms occurring during the preceding 3-month period and is adapted for assessments in both clinical and epidemiological research (Jozefak, & Berg- Nielsen, 2016). DICA was once considered a structured interview, but now can be used in a semi-structured format. It displays good reliability and is designed for use with children 6 to 17 years. It usually takes between 1 to 2 hours to administer. The DICA is a useful measure for both research and clinical settings, and it provides a reliable tool for assessing psychiatric information in behavior disorders, anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, and substance abuse disorders (Sadock, Sadock & Ruiz, 2014). The CAPA and DICA instruments are used for children and adolescent and not adults because they are structured specifically for them and so they are simpler and more direct interview/questionnaire. NURS 6660 Week 2 Discussion Assessment in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Treatment options for children and adolescents
Two treatment options used for children and adolescent and not for adults are parenting training in behavior therapy and positive parenting program (Triple P). Parent training in behavior therapy or parent training is a treatment option, where parents learn new skills and or strengthen their existing skills to teach and manage their child’s behavior. It has shown to strengthen the relationship between the parents and their children and to decrease negative/problem behaviors in children and adolescent (CDC, 2017). The Triple P – Positive Parenting Program (Triple P) is a parent training program that is designed to prevent severe behavioral, and developmental problems in children. It helps to enhance the knowledge, skills, and confidence of parents. It gives parents simple and practical strategies to help them build strong, healthy relationships, confidently manage their children’s behavior and prevent problems developing (Aghebati, Gharraee, Hakim Shoshtari & Gohari, 2014). Triple P is used in many countries and has shown to work across cultures, socio-economic groups and in many kinds of family structures (Aghebati, Gharraee, Hakim Shoshtari & Gohari, 2014). NURS 6660 Week 2 Discussion Assessment in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Role Parents Assessment and Treatment
Parents play a significant role in their children’s assessment and treatment because they help in monitoring their health and development including facilitating their treatment attendance. They are often present in the assessment sessions and the observation of the child-parent interactions is an important aspect of the assessment. Parents also assist the professionals to make decisions and arrive at treatment plan (Haine-Schlagel, & Walsh, 2015).
Reference
Aghebati, A., Gharraee, B., Hakim Shoshtari, M., & Gohari, M. R. (2014). Triple P-Positive Parenting Program for Mothers of ADHD Children. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 8(1), 59–65.
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2017). Behavior Therapy, Including Training for Parents. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/treatment.html
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2018). Developmental Monitoring and Screening. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/childdevelopment/facts.html
Haine-Schlagel, R., & Walsh, N. E. (2015). A Review of Parent Participation Engagement in Child and Family Mental Health Treatment. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 18(2), 133–150. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-015-0182-x
Jozefak, T., & Berg- Nielsen, T. S., (2016). Measuring characteristics of the Norwegian version of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA) and Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA). Retrieved from: http://www.psyktestbarn.no/CMS/ptb.nsf/pages/capa-papa
Novick, J., Cawthorpe, D., & McLuckie. M., (2016). A measurable treatment plan: Using the Children’s Global Assessment and the Problem Severity scales as outcomes of clinical treatment. Retrieved from: http://www.sciedu.ca/journal/index.php/jha/article/viewFile/10407/6504
Sadock, B. J., Sadock, V. A., & Ruiz, P. (2014). Kaplan & Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry (11th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer. NURS 6660 Week 2 Discussion Assessment in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Assessment in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Why are Development Assessments of Children and Adolescents Important
The assessment of children and adolescents in psychology is a very crucial component in the determination and diagnosing of maladaptive behaviors that can progress into more complicated disorders and challenges if not detected early. Early therapeutic treatment of children and adolescents is imperative for the proper achieval of developmental milestones.  Developmental assessment is so important because as a comprehensive medical care model it serves as a process map of children’s performance and can be used to compare children of similar ages and normal developmental patterns (CDC, 2018).  Additionally, notable areas of challenges and impairments can be addressed by a specialist when found.
Assessment Instruments Used for Children and Adolescents
Many diverse instruments are used in the assessment of children and adolescents and two of these assessment tools will be reviewed here.  One tool used in assessment is called the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA) and another tool used is called the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents (DICA).  CAPA is a interview based instrument that is diverse in its variety of versions and used in the ages of 9-17. The CAPA looks at symptoms that have occurred in the preceding 3-month period and has established use in both the clinical arena and research (Jozefak, & Berg-Nielson, 2016).  DICA is another tool often used that was once a structured interview format that has been adapted to a semi-structure format with great accuracy in reliable measurements conducted over a 1-2 hour time period.  The DICA tool is used for children 6 to 17 years of age and assesses disorders in behavior, substance abuse, anxiety and depression (Sadock, Sadock & Ruiz, 2014).  Both of the tools reviewed are used specific to the population children and adolescents due to their simplistic nature.  These tools are not used in adults as they provide a direct/interview approach that is not required in this population to elicit details. The NHMRC has emphasized the need to use validated instruments in the developmental assessment of children and adolescents.  Two other validated tools that are often used in practice are the PSC-17; Pediatric Symptom Checklist and SCARED; Screen for Children and Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders. NURS 6660 Week 2 Discussion Assessment in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Treatment options for children and adolescents
Treatment options in the care of children and adolescents is a vital component that must be considered as the PMHNP, prescribing the most suitable and therapeutic modality can be challenging.  Each child and adolescent must be treated individually and this consideration means that treatment options are not a one size fits all. Early intervention is essential and works to provide better outcomes for children and adolescents.  Treatment options include parental education/training and positive parenting program.  Parent training is a behavior therapy modality that works to educate parents on new skills and the enhancement of existing skills in management of their childrens behavior.  The Positive parenting program was designed to alleviate severe behavior, and developmental problems in children.  This process is completed by heightening skills and confidence of parents through the use of practical strategies.  This program has proven effectiveness worldwide and in many cultures, family backgrounds and socio-economic groups (Aghebati, Gharraee, Gohari, 2014).
The Role of Parents in Assessment and Treatment
The use of parental reports is recommended as a significant part of the assessment of children and adolescents. Parents help in monitoring the efficacy of treatment and work to help facilitate consistent attendance to treatment.  The ability to observe parent-child interactions is a very important component to be assessed and these observations work to help the PMHNP develop and modify treatment plans (Haine-Schlagel & Walsh, 2015).
 
References
Aghebati, A., Gharraee, B., Hakim, Shoshtari, M., & Gohari, M. R. (2014). Triple P- Positive Parenting Program for Mothers of ADHD children. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 8(1), 59-65
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2018). Developmental Monitoring and Screening.  Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/childdevelopment/facts.html
Haine-Schlagel, R., & Walsh, N. E. (2015). A Review of Parent Participation Engagement in Child and Family Mental Health Treatment. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 18(2), 133-150.
Jozefak, T., Berg-Nielson, T. S., (2016). Measuring characteristics of the Norwegian version of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA) and Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA). Retrieved from http://www.psyktestbarn.co/CMS
Sadock, B. J., Sadock, V. A., & Ruiz, P. (2014). Kaplan & Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry (11th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer. NURS 6660 Week 2 Discussion Assessment in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
 

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