Nursing theories essay examples

Nursing theories essay examples
Importance of Nursing Theory
Nursing theory was largely neglected after Florence Nightingale first defined nursing in 1860 with her writing of Notes on Nursing: What it is, What it is Not (Zborowsky, 2014). Nursing theory and models grew exponentially beginning in the 1950’s (McCrae, 2012). Early nurse theorists recognized the need to distinguish the profession from medicine and the traditional “handmaiden status”; the path to accomplish this is through theory by establishing nursing as a “thinking profession (McCrae, 2012) nursing theories essay examples. Continuing to develop nursing theory and define the nursing profession is what will protect and define nursing as a profession rather than a discipline.
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The purpose of this paper is to explore the importance of nursing theory for the nursing profession, to discuss Kristen Swanson’s Theory of Caring, how this theory meets all four recognized relationships of the nursing metaparadigm and its application to the role of nurse practitioner.
Importance of Nursing Theory for the Nursing Profession
Nursing theory is essential to the profession of nursing on many levels. Theories help to define the discipline and play an important role in research and  concept development helping to discover more facets of nursing for research (Im and Chung, 2012). Generating theory consolidates the nursing profession and ensures new roles are created and founded on “critically appraised science base” (Power, 2016, p.42) Nursing is never static; roles are expanding providing care once done by doctors. Nursing theory ensures a close linkage to research making implementation at the practice level more practical as well as providing the evidence base needed for further theoretical development (Warelow, 2013). Theory is crucial in propelling the profession of nursing and to “protect and preserve the focus and clarity of nursing’s distinct contribution to health care” (Wilson et al. 2015, p.146). In today’s multidisciplinary setting of healthcare, the nursing profession continues to strive to define and maintain its professional boundaries as well as expand its body of knowledge (Warelow, 2013).
The study of nursing theory aids in application of theory to everyday practice and patient/client interactions. Through study of nursing theory, graduate students reflect upon experiences from their practice and how application of theory aided in treatment of patients or how the lack of knowledge in theory hindered the person-nurse relationship. According to Hatlevik (2011), the teaching of nursing student in using reflective skills directly influences coherence of theoretical knowledge to practice.
Swanson’s Theory of Caring
Kristen Swanson first introduced the Theory of Caring with the introduction of Five Caring Processes in 1991 with the publishing Empirical Development of a Middle Range Theory of Caring, later expanding and reorganizing the caring processes in 1993 and 1998 (Wands, 2011;  Amendolair,2012). The five caring processes identified are maintaining belief, knowing, being with, doing for, and enabling.
The process of maintaining belief is a “fundamental belief in persons and their capacity to make it through events and transitions and face a future with meaning” (Wands, 2011 p.182). Nurses who maintain belief in their patients help patients find belief in themselves that they can get through whatever circumstance, by offering hope to them. “Knowing is the anchor that moors the beliefs of nursing/nursing to the lived realities of those served (Swanson, 1991, p.164)” (Amendolair, 2012, p.15). Knowing is learning and attempting to understand events and how they affect the person (Wands, 2011). Swanson’s third caring process is being with;  be with the patient, giving time to the patient and offering presence. Offering of one’s self and time conveys a message to the patient that they matter (Wands, 2011). Preserving life and dignity through caring actions is the fourth process of doing for (Amendolair, 2012). Doing for is not just the action, but predicting what the person would do if they could do it for themselves. Lastly, Swanson defines enabling as “to facilitate the other’s capacity to grow, heal, and/or practice self-care (p.164)” (Wands, 2011, p.184). Enabling equips the patients with the tools and empowerment to care and provide for themselves. These processes provide the foundation of Swanson’s Theory of Caring as well as the research of caring (Wands, 2011).
Theory of Caring and the Nursing Metaparadigm
The widely accepted metaparadigm concepts introduced by Fawcett are person, nurse, environment, and health (Alimohammadi, Taleghani, Mohammadi & Akbarian, 2014). Swanson’s five processes presented in the theory of caring meets all facets of the metaparadigm; person and health, person and environment, health and nurse, and person, environment and health. Maintaining belief and being with fulfills the person-environment-health metaparadigm, knowing is the person-environment, health-nurse can easily be related to doing for, and enabling fulfills the person-health concept of Fawcett’s nursing metaparadigm.
Maintaining belief and being with is a fundamental process in the person-environment-health relationship. Maintaining belief in the person is to encourage and give hope that the person can and will transition out of the current situation (Amendolair, 2012). Being with is arguably the most misunderstood process for nurses but is the most important (Wands, 2011). Spending one-on-one time by being emotionally present with the patient builds a trusting relationship encouraging the patient and nurse’s reception and giving of information from the other (Wands, 2011). These concepts lend to the metaparadigm by acknowledging the person, establishing trust, providing hope and being emotionally present helping to enhance the interaction the nurse has with the person-health-environment. These two processes are holistic in nature by maintaining belief and being with recognizing the person as a whole and all the facets of; the person, their health and their environment. This relationship is always interacting; one affects the other and so on.
Knowing is learning and appreciating the lived experiences of the patient. Knowing relates to the person-environment through subcategories Swanson describes in 1998. These subcategories are avoiding making assumptions, thoroughly assessing, seeking cues, centering on the person who is receiving care and engaging personhood (Wands, 2011). Avoiding assumptions relies on the nurse to have a good understanding of self and their own beliefs as to not make assumptions of the person but rather “knowing the other from place of meaning and deliberate intention” (Wands, 2011). The nurse needs to thoroughly assess and seek cues that can help the nurse understand the person-environment relationship. How does the patient present? Does the body language match verbal cues? These are just a sample that can lead the nurse to examine deeper the person-environment metaparadigm and understand the patient and their life events. Through this investigation and knowing, the nurse can better understand how to empower the patient to manipulate the environment to meet their immediate health and wellness needs.
Doing for is the most recognized process by nurses (Wands, 2011). The health and nurse metaparadigm is relatable in the process of doing for. This is the tasks of nursing, the act of doing for the patient when they cannot do it for themselves leading to a better state of health. Doing for requires more than just technical skills, it requires experience and scientific evidence-based knowledge to support the decisions and actions taken. “Care that is, doing for is comforting, anticipatory, protective of the other’s needs, and performed competently and skillfully (Swanson, 1991, p.164)” (Wands, 2011).
Enabling as defined by Swanson is empowering the patient to cope with their illness by teaching, explaining, supporting, and providing feedback about the illness in turn enabling them to make decisions about their care (Amendolair, 2012). The person is then educated about resources and empowered to make changes that are necessary to improve health and promote wellness. Empowerment through enabling supports the person and helps them find meaning and strength to move forward with their decisions, no matter what that decision may be.
Caring, being the central phenomena of nursing, is supported by Swanson’s theory of caring (Ahern, Corless, Davis & Kwong, 2011). Theory can feel abstract and not easily translated to practice, leading to practitioners to experience a disconnect from caring science theory and caring practice (Ranheim, Karner & Bertero, 2012). Swanson’s theory of caring, being a middle-range theory, lends itself to easy implementation and application to the interaction of nurse practitioners and their patients.
Application of Swanson’s Theory of Caring for Nurse Practitioners
Understanding caring as the central phenomena of nursing is an integral part of becoming a successful nurse practitioner. By using Swanson’s five caring processes a nurse practitioner (NP) practices patient-centered care. Patient-centered care ultimately enables and empowers the patient to make necessary decisions and actions that will promote well-being. Establishing a trusting, respectful relationship through maintaining belief, knowing, being with, doing for, and enabling is an important part of the patient-NP relationship. The NP-patient relationship is characterized by the willingness of NPs to talk with patients and to attentively listen(knowing and being with) to create treatment regimens (doing for) while providing teaching and health promotion (enabling) all the while maintaining belief in the patient.
In my own professional experience I have used the five processes of Swanson’s theory of caring. In 2004, I was the nurse taking care of a new mother that had suffered with HELLP that ultimately led to fetal demise. She was transferred into our ICU after the birth of her stillborn baby. Knowing I had recently experienced this myself, I was assigned to the mother. I could connect with her in ways others felt they could not. I was able to offer her and her family hope through maintaining belief that she will get through this. Knowing her by learning what her fears were, her dreams for the baby were and what she wanted in the future. Being with was simply holding her hand or a hug and crying with her. Doing for her the things she could not at the time due to IV lines and weakness. Enabling her, by providing resources to help with child loss and grief and a journal to express her anger, sadness, and hopelessness. Through all of this, I was able to help her not bring closure, as I believe there is no closure when losing a child, but I rather equipped her with tools to help her to try to make sense of what happened.
Ahern et al. (2011) cared for a 38-year old Caribbean woman that had undergone several invasive and diagnostic procedures relating to a neoplasia. While suffering depression and the recent loss of her parents, she received a diagnosis of high-grade dysplasia. After missing two appointments she arrived at the clinic and expressed her fears and anxiety related to the diagnosis and pain of the procedure. The procedure was explained in depth to her hoping to ease her fears. Unfortunately, she was unable to finish the procedure. The authors surmise that if a holistic advanced nurse practice model had been utilized, there may potentially been a different clinical outcome. Swanson’s theory of caring and its five care processes: maintaining belief, knowing, being with, doing for, and enabling became part of the clinics holistic approach for their advanced practice nurse model.
Conclusion
Theory can feel abstract and not easily applied to everyday practice. The graduate prepared nurse offers patients care through full understanding of theory and its implications in caring for the person. McCrae (2012) states the ability to generate and apply theory is what lends to a legitimate profession. Swanson’s theory of caring, being middle-range, is evidence based through interactions of patients and professional nurses. Offering empirical evidence, in today’s evidence-based health care system her theory lends itself to easy application.  “Theory is central in developing nursing knowledge and to asserting nursing as a professional occupation” (Power,2016, p.45).
Nurse practitioners implement caring theory by maintaining belief, knowing, being with, doing for, and enabling resulting in a holistic approach to patient-centered care. Upon reflection and examination of the five processes of Swanson’s theory of caring and the nursing metaparadigm, the author acknowledges that all five processes are related to each of the four metaparadigms. Not unlike the nursing metaparadigm, all five processes build upon each other; no process is independent of the other.
References
Ahern, R. L., Corless, I. B., Davis, S. M., & Kwong, J. J. (2011). Infusing Swanson’s Theory of caring into an advanced practice nursing model for an infectious diseases anal dysplasia clinic. The Journal Of The Association Of Nurses In AIDS Care: JANAC, 22(6), 478-488. doi:10.1016/j.jana.2011.06.010
Alimohammadi,N., Taleghani, F., Mohammadi,E., & Akbarian,R. (2014). The nursing metaparadigm concept of human being in Islamic thought. Nursing Inquiry 21(2), 121-129. doi:10.1111/nin.12040
Amendolair, D. (2012). Caring model: putting research into practice. International Journal for Human Caring 16(4), 14-21.
Im, E. & Chang, S.J. (2012). Current trends in nursing theories. Journal of Nursing Scholarship 44(2), 156-164. doi:10.1111/j.1547-5069.2012.01440.x
Hatlevik, I.K.R. (2011). The theory-practice relationship: reflective skills and theoretical knowledge as key factors in bridging the gap between theory and practice in initial nursing education. Journal of Advanced Nursing 68(4), 868-877. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2011.05789.x
McCrae,N. (2012). Whither nursing models? The value of nursing theory in the context of evidence-based practice and multidisciplinary health care. Journal of Advanced Nursing 68(1), 222-229. doi:10.11111/j.1365-2648.2011.05821.x
Power, L. (2016). Nursing theory and the delivery of compassionate care. Nursing Standard 30(24), 41-46.
Ranheim, A., Karner, A. & Bertero, C. (2012). Caring theory and practice-entering a simultaneous concept analysis. Nursing Forum 47(2), 78-90. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6198.2012.00263.x
Wands, L.M. (2011). Caring for veterans returning home from middle eastern wars. Nursing Science Quarterly 24(2), 180-186. doi:10.1177/0894318411399450
Warelow, P.J. (2013). Changing philosophies: a paradigmatic nursing shift from Nightingale. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing 31(1), 36-45.
Wilson, R., Godfrey, C.M., Sears, K., Medves, J., Ross-White, A. & Lambert, N. (2015). Exploring conceptual and theoretical frameworks for nurse practitioner education: a scoping review protocol. JBI Database of Systemic Reviews and Implementation Reports. 13(10), 146-155. doi:10.11124/jbisrir-2015-2150
Zborowsky, T. (2014). The legacy of Florence Nightingale’s environmental theory: nursing research focusing on the impact of healthcare environments. Health Environments Research and Design Journal 7(4), 19-34.
 
 
Grand Theorist Report
There are many grand nursing theories that have helped to set the foundation for the nursing profession. Faye Abdellah was one of the first pioneers for shaping nursing as a profession using her framework for Patient-Centered Approaches to Nursing. Abdellah’s theory is easy to apply to nursing practice in a healthcare institution because her framework is readable and clear (McEwen & Wills, 2014). In addition, another rationale for implementing her theory into practice at a healthcare institution is the fact that it clearly addresses the four metaparadigms—person, environment, health, and nursing. In this paper, we will discuss the theorist Faye Abdellah, her theory on Patient-Centered Approaches to Nursing, and how this theory can be integrated into practice at a healthcare institution.
Description of Theorist
Faye Abdellah was born in New York City on March 13, 1919. Abdellah decided at a very young age she wanted to pursue a career in nursing. She received her original certification in nursing from Fitkin Memorial Hospital. She continued her study of nursing at Columbia University getting her BA in Nursing along with her doctorate degree, which focused on psychology and education (Dewey, 2016).
Abdellah was highly influential in the profession of nursing. She was the Chief Nursing Officer and Deputy United States Surgeon General until 1993, and she was ranked as a Rear Admiral. She retired in 2000 from her last position as Dean of the Graduate School of Nursing at the Uniform Services University of Health Sciences (McEwen & Wills, 2014). As a whole, throughout her career Abdellah received many academic honors for her achievements in nursing. Her main focus was to reshape nursing as a profession by encouraging nurses to look past a physical illness or diagnosis and see “patients as people with a complex of emotional and psychological needs” (Dewey, 2016, n.p.). Clearly, this concept of looking at patients as more complex beings significantly helped to influence and shape her Patient-Centered Approaches to Nursing.
Category of Theory
Abdellah’s Patient Centered Approaches to Nursing is considered a grand nursing theory that is based on human needs. She believed that patients should be seen as ‘people’ who have individual unique needs that require personalized care from nurses. Furthermore, Abdellah developed her theory based on how she practiced while providing care to patients—which is what helps to make the theory highly applicable. McEwen & Wills (2014) further explain that Abdellah’s theory is applicable not only in the hospital setting, but also in the community setting.
Assumptions Underlying the Theory
Abdellah’s original theory did not have any stated assumptions; however, as time passed she did add the following six assumptions related to: 1) change and anticipated changes that impact the nursing profession, 2) the importance of how social enterprises and social problems are related, 3) how poverty, racism, pollution, education, etc. impact health and health care delivery, 4) changes in nursing education, 5) continuing education for nurses, and 6) development of nursing leaders (McEwen & Wills, 2014).
In addition, it is important to clearly define the metaparadigm concepts/assumptions underlying the theory as well. Abdellah’s Patient-Centered Approaches to Nursing is all encompassing, and the metaparadigms addressed in the theory are related to person, environment, health, and nursing.
 
 
Person
Person is defined as the patient needing care. McEwen & Wills (2014) explain that Abdellah’s theory views the patient as the “individual who needs nursing care and who is dependent on the health care provider” (p. 141). When using Patient-Centered Approaches to Nursing, it is important to know that Abdellah emphasized the significance of individualized care and knowing the person’s needs.
Environment
When using Abdellah’s theory, it is important to know that the environment from the patient’s standpoint is interconnected to include not only the physical environment, but also external factors that impact the patient such as social problems, poverty, racism, etc. These are all factors within the environment that affect the health of patients and how they approach health care delivery (McEwen & Wills, 2014).
Health
Health can be viewed as a better state of being. The purpose of Abdellah’s theory is to identify problems that are negatively impacting patients and eliminating these problems. Later we will discuss Abdellah’s 21 Nursing Problems and nursing’s responsibility to identify these problems.
Nursing
Nursing is considered “a service to individuals and families to society, which helps people cope with their health needs” (McEwen & Wills, 2014, p. 141). Nursing is expected to identify nursing problems and work collaboratively with the healthcare team to ensure that patients get desired outcomes.
 
 
Major Concepts of the Theory
The major concepts related to Abdellah’s theory involve using ten steps to identify and develop treatment to nursing problems related to patients. Abdellah explains that there are 21 basic nursing problems related to patients, and it is important for nurses to know these identified nursing problems so they can use them while trying to identify what needs to be the plan of care. Below is an abbreviated version of Abdellah’s 21 Nursing Problems.
Abdellah’s 21 Nursing Problems

Maintenance of Hygiene and Comfort
Recognition of physiological responses to conditions
Maintenance of Nutrition for Body Cells

Promotion of activity, exercise, rest, etc.
Maintenance of normal body functions
Achievement of spiritual goals

Promotion of Safety
Appropriate sensory function
Maintenance of Therapeutic Environment

 
 
Maintenance of Proper Body Mechanics
 
Identification and acceptance of positive and negative expressed and reacting appropriately
 
Awareness of physical, emotional, and developmental needs

 
Appropriate Oxygenation
 
Understand relationship between emotions and illness
 
Acceptance of optimal goals despite physical & emotional limitations

 
Appropriate Elimination
 
Maintenance of appropriate verbal and nonverbal communication
 
Willing to use community resources

Maintenance of Fluid & Electrolyte Balance
Development of positive interpersonal relationships
Recognition that social problems impact illness

(McEwen & Wills, 2014)
Clearly, it is very important to know the 21 Nursing Problems because these are the problems nurses must link to their findings while using the ten steps for identification and development of a nursing care plan. The ten steps build upon each other from learning about the basics of a patient, then getting more specific to identify the exact nursing problem(s) that need to be addressed. Below are the ten steps that nurses must follow to successfully develop a plan of care and reach expected patient outcomes.
Ten Nursing Skills to Identifying Problems & Developing a Treatment Plan

1.      Get to know the patient
6. Validate conclusions with patient

2.      Define relevant and irrelevant information
7. Observe and Evaluate Patient

3.      Develop generalizations
8. Evaluate patient & family reaction to plan— incorporate family in care if possible

4.      Identify a therapeutic nursing plan
9. Nursing’s perception of patient’s problems

5.      Test generalizations and modify plan if needed
10. Discuss & develop a nursing care plan

(McEwen & Wills, 2014)
Understanding how to use the 21 Nursing Problems along with the Ten Nursing Skills is important for nurses to grasp in order to see the full potential of this nursing theory for patients. Each of the Ten Nursing Skills needs to be followed so nurses can individualize care plans and work collaboratively with the patient and family to improve the patient’s state of health.
Major Propositions
The major proposition of Abdellah’s theory focuses on looking at the patient as a human being, not an illness.  While her theory touches on many factors, it primarily focuses on patient centered care (McEwen & Willis, 2014).  Due to its broad nature, it is testable in principle such as patient satisfaction and nursing care.
How has it been used?
In the past, Abdellah’s theory has been used in nursing education and nursing research.  In nursing education, her theory has been used to organize lectures and curricula by categorizing nursing problems based on the patient’s needs and developing a classification of nursing skills and treatment (McEwen & Willis, 2014).  Abdellah’s nursing theory has also been used in research such as patient-centered approach to nursing, evolution of nursing, perspectives on nursing theory, public policy impacting on nursing care of older adults, and preparing nursing research for the 21st century to name a few (McEwen & Willis, 2014).
Action Plan
It would behoove this institution to adopt Abdellah’s theory as a foundation of practice.  The following action plan could be used as daily practice for all nurses to not only hone their critical thinking skills, but to also give more person centered care (PCC).  PCC is important and has been a focus for many healthcare institutions for years.  In 1969, Edith Balint described person centered care as “understanding the patient as a unique human being” (Santana et al., 2017, p. 430).  Many healthcare systems are adopting a PCC to help gauge high quality care.
This action plan would focus around the Person-Centered Nursing (PCN) Framework developed by McCormack and McCance.  The PCN Framework comes from research focusing on PCC with older people and the experience of caring in nursing (McCance, McCormack, & Dewing, 2011).  The PCN Framework is comprised of four steps.
The first is prerequisites, which focuses on the professional competence of the nurse and his or her commitment to their job.  The nurse needs to be able to demonstrate their beliefs and values and know himself or herself before they can move on.  The second step is the care environment.  This includes if the nurse and the service line are an appropriate fit, making sure the nurse is equipped with the skills and the knowledge to take care of patients.  It is important that the heath care system is organized and can offer a supportive system for its employees so that they can safely deliver patient care and have effective relationships with one another.  Third is person-centered process, which can be thought of as one of the most important steps.  This step includes care that is focused on cultural competence, employee and patient engagement, staff being present, and providing holistic care.  The fourth and final step is outcomes.  This is known as the central component of the PCN Framework and where we can tie it all together.  This includes patient and nurse satisfaction, feeling of well being, and obtaining a therapeutic work environment (McCance et al., 2011).
Integration
A PCC Team would need to come together to develop current data within their hospital.  Data would include patient satisfaction scores, nurse satisfaction scores, readmission rates, and a basis of patient-centered care knowledge among nurses by developing a questionnaire for them to fill out.  The PCC Team would them form a class for all currently employed nurses with an in depth explanation of the PCN Framework and what each step includes.  Role-playing and case studies could be used in order to help staff put PCC into play in a practice setting.  This portion would be integral to the roll out of PCC because it helps nurses to see the importance of person-centered care within their own healthcare setting and would help them to deliver higher quality care (McCance et al., 2011).  Once staff is completely trained, leaders will be able to put the PCN Framework into action.  According to McCance et al.,  “using the Framework ‘in action’ within the workplace as a tool to evaluate care during handovers or during analysis of critical events, both positive or negative; and using the Framework to assess the experience of patients being cared for in each site” (para. 17) we can evaluate the outcomes listed previously: patient satisfaction scores, nurse satisfaction scores, and readmission rates.  It would be important to reevaluate the nurses after one year with the same questionnaire that was handed out at the beginning of the PCN Framework roll out.  The PCC Team would be able to assess their effectiveness in delivering the information and the data from the satisfaction scores and readmission rates would give them the ability to verify how well the PCN Framework works.
After data is collected, the PCC Team would move forward in presenting the information to all new hire nurses and developing a curriculum for preceptors to be able to teach the PCN Framework and to help to develop new nurses within it.  It would be important to continue with the PCC knowledge questionnaire so the PCC Team can continue to evaluate the efficiency of their team.  After one year of new hire education, the team will then collect satisfaction scores and readmission rates to submit to the Board of Directors for the healthcare institution so that the PCN Framework can be presented as a standard of practice in all hospitals within the healthcare institution.
In conclusion, health care costs are rising at an exponential level and due to this rise; patients and their insurance companies are expecting higher-grade care.  Nursing as profession needs to move towards a more patient centered approach.  Without this approach, nursing is just assumed to be medicine and patients will continue to feel that they have no place in their care team.  Currently, patients are being told what medications they should take, when they should take it, and who will be overseeing their care.  In order to reduce readmission rates and subsequently cut costs, patients need to have ample say in their treatment plan and should be able to have open conversations with their caregivers about how they feel about their illness and their plan of care.  If they feel their nurses are competent in their skills and that they truly care about their wellbeing, patients will feel safer and more willing to speak up when they do not understand something and will trust in their care plan to continue it after discharge, thus reducing their risk of readmission.
 
References
Dewey, J. P. (2016). Faye Abdellah. Salem Press Biographical Encyclopedia. Retrieved from
http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/eds/detail/detail?vid=4&sid=b8238afd-f12d-4800-89ca-ff4e2c58d36d%40sessionmgr101&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzL
WxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#AN=113931050&db=ers
McCance, T., McCormack, B., & Dewing, J. (2011, May 2). An exploration of person-centeredness in practice. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 16. http://dx.doi.org/10.3912/OJIN.Vol16No02Man01
McEwen, M., & Willis, E. M. (2014). Theoretical Basis for Nursing (4 ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Santana, M. J., Manalili, K., Jolley, R. J., Zelinsky, S., Quan, H., & Lu, M. (2017, September 30). How to practice person-centred care: A conceptual framework. Health Expectations, 429-440. http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1111/hex.12640
 

1.
Grand nursing theories that are based on human needs include all but one of the following. Which is not considered to be a part of needs-based theories?

A)
Focus is on the client.

B)
Client is considered biopsychosocially.

C)
Individual parts of the client are considered.

D)
Interventions are prescribed to meet client needs.

 
 

2.
Florence Nightingale developed a model for nursing practice that was inductively derived based on her experiences during a time of war. What is the model considered by most nursing scholars?

A)
Philosophy

B)
Practice theory

C)
Schema

D)
Research theory

 
 

3.
One of the concepts of Nightingale’s model included the following five points: pure air, pure water, efficient drainage, cleanliness, and light. In which concept are these five points included?

A)
Social considerations

B)
Personal cleanliness

C)
Ventilation and warming

D)
Health of house

 
 

4.
The nurse theorist Virginia Henderson developed which theory?

A)
The Principles and Practice of Nursing

B)
Patient-Centered Approaches to Nursing

C)
The Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory

D)
The Behavioral System Model

 
 

5.
In the theory by Virginia Henderson, The Principles and Practice of Nursing, she defines nursing and considers her definition of nursing which of the following?

A)
A concept

B)
A model

C)
An assumption

D)
An axiom

 
 

6.
One nurse theorist and her colleague listed 10 steps in identifying the client’s problems and 10 nursing skills to be used in developing a treatment typology. Who is this nurse theorist?

A)
Betty Neuman

B)
Dorothy Johnson

C)
Faye Abdellah

D)
Florence Nightingale

 
 

7.
The nurse theorist Dorothea E. Orem developed which nursing theory?

A)
Patient-Centered Approaches to Nursing

B)
The Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory

C)
The Principles and Practice of Nursing

D)
The Behavioral System Model

 
 

8.
Included in The Self-Care Defi

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