Patient Protection and Affordability Care Act Health Policy Paper Sample essay

Patient Protection and Affordability Care Act Health Policy Paper Sample essay
Abstract
The purpose of this research is to identify the significance and impact of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and how health care insurance plays impacts millions of American citizens. The significant aspect of this paper will show readers the overall picture on how Medicare helps individuals in need and what group of people this act is for and the people who are against it. Research in this paper will show that the main argument is making health care affordable for everyone to make sure they have the proper treatment in order to seek medical attention and receive medication. Research came from empirical journal articles dealing with this particular act and how it impacts American citizens. Results suggest that mainly the reason for this act is to provide comfort for not only the geriatric population but also anyone who is need of help for funding when it relates to medical insurance. Changes that should be implemented should show the underlying cause of tax increases on the middle class, affordability for all who qualifies, and ways to improve health care coverage for the next forty years.
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Introduction of Problem/Issue and Related Bill
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is one of the most important bills to be introduced and implemented because it covers a important topic in America today which is healthcare and how citizens of this great country can benefit from being covered medically in certain situations The Affordable Care Act is targeted at increasing the reasonable pricing and how health insurance coverage for Americans is rated. The main issue focused on this bill is to reduce the long term costs of health care not just for individuals but also the government. The Affordable Care Act was enacted by the 111th United States Congress and was effective on March, 23, 2010. The United States representative for New York’s 13th congressional district Charles B. Rangel introduced the Affordable Care Act in the House as “Service Members Home Ownership Tax Act of 2009” back in September of 2009. The act was passed by the House in October of 2009, and then passed by the Senate in December 2009 under the title that it goes by today known as the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The bill was signed into law by President Barack Obama on March, 23, 2010. I feel the main issue with this bill is making sure there is a way that all American citizens can be covered by medical insurance that is fair for each class depending on your income and that it is affordable when situations arises and medicine or medical attention is required. Patient Protection and Affordability Care Act Health Policy Paper Sample essay.
“Nearly 30 years after President Nixon proposed the first major overhaul of the health care system, comprehensive reform became a reality when President Obama signed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) on March 23, 2010. The ACA is expected to cover 32 million currently uninsured people by expanding Medicaid, offering subsidies to purchase insurance, and prohibiting preexisting condition exclusions. Like Presidents Carter and Clinton before him, Barack Obama campaigned on a promise of health care reform.” (Gostin & Garcia, 2012) The significance of the bill shows why it is so important in society today. The main concern is finding the problem and what is wrong with the influential parameters that the bill puts upon people. The following section shows how the bill was introduced and also certain issues that relate to it and how particular situations of everyday life impact the bill.
“On March 23, 2010, President Obama signed into law the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA).” This Act is a major attempt to improve access to health care by expanding coverage through Medicaid and by reforming the private insurance market. Quality is also an important focus of PPACA—it promotes disease management, care coordination, new payment models, value-based purchasing initiatives, and the use of comparative effectiveness research. PPACA offers a strong regulatory push toward the goal of “flawless execution,”   the health care equivalent of zero defects in industrial production.” (Furrow, 2011) I think this act is one of the most important acts in the history of America because of the impact it has had on the healthcare industry and also how it impacts so many people on a daily basis and continues to be the leading force to make health care affordable for all people here in the United States.

Background/Significance and Scope of the Problem

The most unique aspect of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is how it became known as what it is today. The name that is known as the bill itself today has undergone changes that can control health care costs and public insurance being expanded by way of insurance expansion that consist of Medicare and Medicaid availability. The one change starting out was the notion that private insurance had to be in a nutshell regulated and subsidized. Most of the ideas that started the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act makes up the foundation of the expansion of the laws insurance and in past initiations have been bought up in reform proposals. Ideas and opinions have been expressed since the conception of the new law for healthcare for private insurance versus public insurance when it comes to individual mandates paired with sums of money from the government. Patient Protection and Affordability Care Act Health Policy Paper Sample essay.
This act or notion was thought of in a way that United Health Insurance could eventually win the backing from Senate. Experts that are well educated on healthcare policy came to the conclusion based on theory that the individual mandate of the requirement started with Republicans over twenty years ago to buy health insurance when back then it was proposed at first by the politically conservative Heritage Foundation as a other option to just one person paying for health care. This mandate was pushed heavy by Republicans back then as the ideal approach at first to health-care reform basing it off of one thing: responsibility placed upon the individual. In 1986, the Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act pass by both parties in the Congress and signed by then President Ronald Reagan focusing on Medicare. This act require all hospitals that have a partnership with Medicare to provide emergency care to any patient who seeks medical attention, making the government take the cost that didn’t have the funding to pay the medical expenses.
“PPACA contains numerous provisions that fund research and disseminate findings to providers about what works. Some provisions define health care quality and its measures, while others attempt to generate new research findings on outcomes and best practices in the clinical setting. Still other provisions mandate broad dissemination of these findings to providers and consumers of health care through websites and other media. Finally, payment strategies will be expanded and tested to determine how the Medicare payment system can better promote best practices and outcomes.” (Furrow, 2011) There are a lot of issues that correlate with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act but none is bigger than the impact the act has on Medicare.
The first way this issue impacts the act as whole discusses preventive services for people eligible for coverage. Medicare was put in place to cover more services for people that need preventive screenings done annually. The most influential act of 2003 was the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement and Modernization Act that states the enrollment period in Medicare Part B a person can receive a physical examination. The next part of Medicare that deals with the ramifications is prescription drugs and the cost of medicine for people that have Medicare. This part of the deal requires participants to pay twenty five percent of the prescription drugs cost. One would suggest that this can be very impactful because of the substantial amount of money that can be saved but also how much is needed to make sure medical problems are at ease.
“First Lady Michele Obama highlighted some of the most welcomed provisions: “Insurance companies can no longer discriminate against children and adults because they have a preexisting condition. Patients can no longer be dropped by their insurance companies because they get sick. People suffering from a serious illness like breast cancer can focus on their treatment because they no longer have to worry about hitting their lifetime limit on coverage. And college kids and young adults just starting out on their own can now get coverage through their parents’ plan. Preventative services are now covered at no out-of-pocket costs. Things like mammograms, cervical screenings, colonoscopies, childhood immunizations, prenatal and new baby care, high blood pressure treatment, all of these are included in new insurance plans with no deductable, no copay, no coinsurance, nothing. Patient Protection and Affordability Care Act Health Policy Paper Sample essay. These steps are crucial because they can help combat preventable conditions that can have serious health consequences later in life.” (Ober & Craven, 2011) The most important aspect to understand that any type of medical condition won’t be judged upon as a factor in the decision when impacting insurance companies in regards to health care reform. Society today has become very strict on certain laws and ways to prevent people from getting the coverage they need, but this Affordable Care Act makes it more relatable for people dealing with the new health care reform. There are many considerations that impact the act from standpoints that influence social, economic, political, and ethical considerations.
“In terms of the overall economic effect, the ACA will expand coverage to tens of millions of people (the White House estimates 32 million) which will naturally increase demand for health-services and boost health expenditures like hospital visits and medications. This increased spending should fuel growth, at least in the near-term. The legislation is financed partly by additional taxes, especially on higher-earners and their investment income. Patient Protection and Affordability Care Act Health Policy Paper Sample essay. The tax hit could stifle consumer spending, offsetting the jump in health expenditures. Then again, Americans with higher incomes tend to save more cash, so it’s also reasonable to think taxing them could divert money from savings accounts to spending — boosting the economy. The overall macroeconomic effect will most likely not be discerned as positive, negative or neutral for some time.” (Norris, 2012)
ACA really displays how not only money will be impacted for years to come but also the impact on so many people. The ACA in demand for health resources will most definitely take the health care industry into new heights never seen before. The dilemma comes into play when taxing the wealthy and sticking the middle class and less fortunate with higher taxes on consumer products that they can’t afford making the health care industry flourish. The social impact on this act can really impact elderly and their daily functions of everyday life and daily living. Socially geriatrics is probably the only group of people that this act impacts due to living normal productive lives after the age of sixty five and beyond. Social aspects can impact parents with children who are on Medicare dealing with insurance that tends to be on the high end of the monetary side. Children who are just born that have to deal with the different situations socially are impacted not by the act in regards to covering them but how people conceive them on a daily basis. Patient Protection and Affordability Care Act Health Policy Paper Sample essay.
“The mostly hotly debated economic factor is how the ACA will affect the deficit. As President Obama reminds anyone who will listen, the Congressional Budget Office scored the legislation as a net deficit reducer (to the tune of $140 billion) over the next ten years although conservatives have quibbled with how the bill was scored. The Court ruled on June 28th that the Federal government cannot force the states to expand Medicaid as the bill had originally intended (specifically, the Federal government could revoke a state’s entire allocation of Medicaid funding if it did not expand Medicaid coverage) so it is possible that conservative governors will not move ahead with expanding Medicaid since they are no longer compelled to. This, no doubt, would be a huge factor in both Federal and state budgets.” (Norris, 2012) The most impactful is how this will deal with the deficit that the United States is already in and will be in for years to come. One would think Obama informing everyone about the Congressional Budget Office is supposedly a net deficit reducer for years to come but from the prior statement who knows if that is even true. The economic impact of the ACA is so substantial that the list goes on based upon factors that make the economy landscape impacted by the Affordable Care Act.
“Regarding the economic topic of the day, job creation, the effect of the legislation again, is hard to read. As noted above, spending in the health sector is likely to increase if for no other reason than tens of millions more consumers in the market so it is not unreasonable to assume jobs will be created in the health sector. Patient Protection and Affordability Care Act Health Policy Paper Sample essay. On the other hand, there is much anecdotal evidence (though little empirical, since the Act’s main provisions are not yet in effect) of businesses downsizing or putting off hiring because of the new employer-provided insurance regulations. The incentive and regulation structure for businesses is complex though, with varying rules and subsidies depending on the size and nature of the business so it is hard to forecast how hiring in the private sector at-large will change if at all.” (Norris, 2012)
That is why the most sought after jobs in the market today are all related to the health care field because so many different options can be explored amongst health care positions. Health care is so wide that any job you get within the health care field one can always work its way up from transitioning to a better job or doing what it takes to learn more job functions that will better place you in a more prominent role. The political implications toward this bill are still in progress because the government has its pros and cons towards the bill and that is what is making Congress go through the things they have been going through since the acts inception. Political issues range in variety of ways from having President Obama name it Obama care and helping American citizens deal with Medicare and having the chance to pay for medical expenses. The most bizarre circumstances going on even now dealing with the provisions and updates is how Congress is dealing with the issue and how the house and senate are going about their decision making in the middle of the process. Patient Protection and Affordability Care Act Health Policy Paper Sample essay.
Ethical implications stir up mix emotions from local all the way up to the national levels of hierarchy. People feel that with this act their government officials only help people that are in the rich class or over a specific age requirement and makes it harder for people who don’t fit a certain criteria to not have any say so whatsoever. Ethical considerations must be made for parents young having kids in their teens, people on disability shouldn’t have to fight for getting approved for Medicare and Medicaid at all in any situation because the one thing that everyone needs is health care insurance to cover bills and medications. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act causes a stir amongst people who are for it and people who are against it, but the question is what are people take on the act and how does it impact them on a daily basis.

Proponent and Opponent Arguments
Life will give you a lot of aspects and one thing is for certain, you will either agree with it or disagree with it. The same can be said about the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act that is currently in place. The group of people that are interested in the act is the everyday hard working man and woman who have a family to take care of and provide especially when it comes to health care funding. This act helps families and businesses alike to have health care coverage in place and also ways for them to get health care coverage if needed. People that are for it are also people with pre-existing health conditions.
These group of people can’t help their health is in jeopardy so they always can rely on this particular bill to be implemented for their benefit. Americans can be at ease and know that insurance companies are held accountable for rate increases and trying to con citizens who are hard working and doing what is right. Health companies can’t cancel your health insurance at all if you so happen to get sick which is something no one can prevent from happening. The reason it benefits families because you get to pick your choice of doctor no matter what and allows you to receive free preventive screenings that can come beneficial for you in the long run to catching something before it becomes worse. College students are for this act as well because they can stay on their parents insurance until they are twenty six which is good because most young people form eighteen up until close to twenty six are pursuing their degree, masters degree, and then a good paying job that will benefit them from a monetary standpoint.
The group of people who are against the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is mostly government officials and members of both the Republicans and some of the Democrats as well. The main issue from a political standpoint is based off the taxes and who gets taxed the most from this act and who it benefits the most. The middle class thinks it is unfair to tax them based off what they make more than the rich people who have the money and get taxed less. Rich people feel that they worked hard and it is not fair to get tax more than the middle class. Health care insurance agencies are against it when it comes down to the fact of money and who does it benefit the most between them and their clients. Health care providers can be a part of this group to because they always seem to be up to something that is not accurate or fair for their clients when they are trying to pursue health care coverage and benefits. One can argue that the PPACA really values what is known as patient safety and has implemented provisions in place for patients. The provisions in place really should show people who are for it and for people who are also against it what really matters first and that is patients. Patient Protection and Affordability Care Act Health Policy Paper Sample essay.
“The passage of PPACA promises to take patient safety to the next level of regulatory intensity in American health care delivery, in part through the infusion of money into patient-safety research and into payment reforms in particular. PPACA has an astonishing variety of provisions aimed at improving the quality of the U.S. health care system, reducing errors, and generally promoting patient safety. These provisions include new centers, demonstration projects, and funding awards for a wide range of quality improvement initiatives. The Act sets out an ambitious research agenda for the United States and provides funding and other incentives to accomplish its goals. It establishes a mandate of continuous, .data-driven testing of the performance of health care professionals and facilities Patient Protection and Affordability Care Act Health Policy Paper Sample essay. It also launches “demonstration projects” through which the federal government funds particular forms of health care or health care delivery systems with a requirement that their performance be studied, often with the intent of examining their potential for wider adoption.” (Furrow, 2011) I think that the Patient Care and Affordability Act can be a force upon acts that have been implemented in the history of our country because of the nature of what is at stake and that is the assurance of health care coverage for all American citizens in the United States. Human Services plays an important role in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act because it focusing on impacting people in every form of patient interaction.
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Human Services Perspective
As a human services student, I feel it is very important that the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act are implemented to insure patients with the best services available in regards to healthcare coverage. One can argue that human services representatives are the first group of people that patients come into contact with in regards to services that are available to them and what is the best option to take amongst people needing health care. Human services look at how health care can impact people in need of benefits and medical expenses and also focus on the positive traits the act offers individuals.“First, the Act provides individuals with improved access to clinical preventive services. A major strategy is to remove cost as a barrier to these services, potentially opening new avenues toward health. For example, new private health plans and insurance policies (for plans or policy years beginning on or after September 23, 2010) are required to cover a range of recommended preventive services with no cost sharing by the beneficiary. Second, the law promotes wellness in the workplace, providing new health promotion opportunities for employers and employees. For example, the Act authorizes funds for grants for small businesses to provide comprehensive workplace wellness programs.” (Koh & Sebelius, 2010) Human services start with showing clients what can be offered for them in any situation and having direct access with clinical preventive services needed by anyone that seeks medical attention. Human services representatives can help with funding sources and dealing with helping patients find different references to help with the cost of anything medical in the health care industry. Human services definitely will impact the workplace and how workers are handled with health care benefits and coverage for employees. For example, Carolina Healthcare System being the biggest healthcare provider in North Carolina provides wellness programs that benefit employees and help them save money in the long run through different types of programs focused on the wellness aspects. These are two of the components that the act can do for individuals and the other two focuses on the community aspect and how human services can impact a patient life through their perspective communities.
“Third, the Act strengthens the vital role of communities in promoting prevention. New initiative opportunities are designed to strengthen partnerships between local or state governments and community groups. For example, new Community Transformation Grants promise to improve nutrition, increase physical activity, promote smoking cessation and social and emotional wellness, and prioritize strategies to reduce health care disparities. Fourth, the Act elevates prevention as a national priority, providing unprecedented opportunities for promoting health through all policies. For example, a newly established National Prevention, Health Promotion, and Public Health Council, involving more than a dozen federal agencies, will develop a prevention and health promotion strategy for the country.” (Koh & Sebelius, 2010) The important component is having communities promote prevention in every regards when it comes to health and the overall goal of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The relationships between state and government have to include the services of Human Services representatives to bridge the gap and come to an understanding. National attention must be made aware of this bill because of the impact and significance it will have on this country for years to come but really because of the promotion to everyone that prevention and health promotion is the way to go for all Americans can be more alert about their health. One would agree with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act because of what it means to not just me but all citizens in need of reassurance of their health care status.
Policy/Bill Recommendations
“This act is the largest reform in health policy in the United States in more than 40 years and thus controversy regarding its implementation and potential for effectiveness will continue. Nurses have the opportunity to engage in the policy implementation of the PPACA through fellowships such as the Health and Aging Policy Fellowship, sponsored by Atlantic Philanthropies, and the Robert Wood Johnson Policy Fellowship. These are critical positions for professionals to work with federal and state administration and legislative branches of government and directly impact policy design and regulatory action. Geriatric nurses will be in the forefront of the potential these changes will have on improving the quality of care older adults received.” (Brody & Sullivan-Marx, 2012) Brody and Sullivan-Marx said it best about this act being the largest reform for the United States in the last forty years is a major accomplishments and shows how far the country has to go to even improve from here on out. I feel that this bill should be passed because of the importance of the overall bill and what is needed for Americans which is affordable health care where anyone can go to the doctor and afford their bills and be able to get the medication that is needed without any problems. The only recommendation I would advise is dealing with the tax situation and making it fair for all individuals not just the rich or poor but a well balance effort. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is one of the most prominent and successful acts that will forever go down as a force that changed the landscape of the health care industry for Americans around the world. Patient Protection and Affordability Care Act Health Policy Paper Sample essay.
References
Bondurant, E. J., & Henry, S. D. (2011). Constitutional challenges to the patient protection and affordable care act. Defense Counsel Journal, 78(2), 249.
Brody, A., & Sullivan-Marx, E. M. (2012). The patient protection and affordable care act: Implications for geriatric nurses and patients. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 38(11), 3. doi:10.3928/00989134-20121008-01
Duhaime, S., Villarreal, A., Young, J., & Holt, G. R. (2012). Patient protection and affordable care act and physician’s assistants. Southern Medical Journal, 105(11), 583. Patient Protection and Affordability Care Act Health Policy Paper Sample essay
Furrow, B. R. (2011). Regulating patient safety: The patient protection and affordable care act. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 159(6), 1727.
Gostin, L. O., & Garcia, K. K. (2012). Affordable care act litigation.(patient protection and affordable care act). JAMA, the Journal of the American Medical Association, 307(4), 369.
Harrington, S. E. (2010). U. S. health-care reform: The patient protection and affordable care act. The Journal of Risk and Insurance, 77(3), 703-708. doi:10.1111/j.1539-6975.2010.01371.x
Hyman, W. B. (2012). An explanation of the patient protection and affordable care act. Ohio Northern University Law Review, 38(2), 579.
Joyce Pulcini. (2013). Update on the patient protection and affordable care act. The American Journal of Nursing, 113(4), 25.
Kizer, K. W. (2012). Veterans and the affordable care act. JAMA : The Journal of the American Medical Association, 307(8), 789-790. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.196
Koh, H. K., & Sebelius, K. G. (2010). Promoting prevention through the affordable care act. The New England Journal of Medicine, 363(14), 1296-1299. doi:10.1056/NEJMp1008560 Patient Protection and Affordability Care Act Health Policy Paper Sample essay.
Norris, S. (2012, August 27). The affordable care act and the economy. Retrieved from http://americaandtheglobaleconomy.wordpress.com/2012/08/27/the-affordable-care-act-and-the-economy/
Ober, S., & Craven, G. (2011). The patient protection and affordable care act: The opportunities for nurses. Journal of Infusion Nursing, 34(1), 20-21. doi:10.1097/NAN.0b013e3182028915
Singer, S., & Shortell, S. M. (2011). Implementing accountable care organizations.(patient protection and affordable care act). JAMA, the Journal of the American Medical Association, 306(7), 758.
Tanner, M. (2013). The patient protection and affordable care act: A dissenting opinion. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 34(1), 3-15. doi:10.1007/s10834-013-9350-7
Health Policy Issue Paper Grading Rubric

Student Name:                            Course/Section:                            Date:

Criterion
Points Possible
Points
Earned
Instructor Comments

·         Problem/issue briefly discussed
·         Related legislation/bill identified
·         Name and number of bill provided
·         Individual who introduced bill noted
·         Current status of bill given (i.e., in committee, passed by house, etc.)
·         Main headings included
30

Patient Protection and Affordability Care Act Health Policy Paper Sample essay

·         History of bill, initial development and impetus for introduction of bill, etc. discussed
·         Pertinent literature review relevant to issue/problem included (i.e., if bill is related to the issue of HIV or teen pregnancy, present literature that validates this problem)
·         Social, economic, political, and ethical considerations/impact related to issue discussed
50

·         Proponents (interest groups/individual) of bill listed and position discussed
·         Opponents (interest groups/individual) of bill listed and position discussed
40

·         “Nursing” OR “human services” perspective on the issue and related bill presented
·         Internet, journal sources used (i.e., see role of Advanced Practice Nurses (Hamric)); ANA position statements, human services oriented institutions, organizations; Virginia Nurse Practice Act; Code of Ethics for Nursing, etc.)
·         Personal views about issue/proposed legislation given
50

·         Expanded on comments about the bill given in the introduction (may include actual bill document retrieved from Internet as an appendix)
·         Student recommendations if bill should be passed in current form discussed (why/why not)
·         Student recommendations for revision of elimination given
50

·         Current APA formatting
·         Correct spelling, grammar, and sentence structure used
·         Flow of ideas are well organized, coherent, and thorough
30

Total
250

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