PHI-413V Ethical and Spiritual Decision Making in Health Care

Grand Canyon University, PHI-413V Ethical and Spiritual Decision Making in Health Care
PHI-413V Ethical and Spiritual Decision Making in Health Care Week one
Based on the required topic study materials, write a reflection about worldview and respond to following:

In 250-300 words, explain the Christian perspective of the nature of spirituality and ethics in contrast to the perspective of postmodern relativism within health care.
In 250-300 words, explain what scientismis and describe two of the main arguments against it. PHI-413V Ethical and Spiritual Decision Making in Health Care
In 750-1,000 words, answer each of the worldview questions according to your own personal perspective and worldview:

What is ultimate reality?
What is the nature of the universe?
What is a human being?
What is knowledge?
What is your basis of ethics?
What is the purpose of your existence?

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Remember to support your reflection with the topic study materials.
While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion. PHI-413V Ethical and Spiritual Decision Making in Health Care
You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.
RUBRIC
Due Date: 15-Mar-2020 at 11:59:59 PM
Maximum Points: 100.0
Ethical and spiritual decision making in health care
Part 1: Explain the Christian perspective of the nature of spirituality and ethics in contrast to the perspective of postmodern relativism within health care
Christianity offers a religious perspective on the nature of ethics and spirituality. It contends that spirituality is the religious and theological prism that explains the notion of God in terms of who, what and how. God is perceived as the eternal and all-powerful being above everything and everyone. With the understanding of God as a concept, Christians have developed belief systems that are presented in the Bible. These belief systems explain the purpose of human life, and the truth as well as the meaning of life. With this awareness, humans can pursue and achieve a transcendent state for all life experiences. This means that even as humans make choices about life, spirituality ensures that they remaining grounded in following God’s guidance. PHI-413V Ethical and Spiritual Decision Making in Health Care. In addition, it makes Christian more accepting of life since there is the acceptance that God guides all fate and anything that happens must have been permitted by God, whether good or bad. As such, spirituality takes on theological and symbolic functions (Igboin, 2015). Besides that, Christians view ethics as making a decision based on God’s instructions as presented in the Bible. They rely on spirituality to conform to God’s expectation without room for ambiguity. The Christian perspective of spirituality and ethics have implications for health care through guiding with decision-making by setting boundaries for accepting choices/options when making decisions. They are particularly focused on lessening human suffering, augmenting wellbeing, and restoring life (Igboin, 2015).
Postmodern relativism presents a more liberal understanding of spirituality, arguing that there is no absolute truth. It is ambiguous when arguing that God may or may not exist with either one of the options being a possibility. Similarly, with regards to ethics, postmodern relativism contents that contrasting ethical arguments could be valid or invalid with no absolute truth. The implication is that no single argument should be discarded simply because it is contradictory. The postmodern relativism perspective is particularly useful to health care since it supports multicultural care delivery through accepting diversity. With this awareness, medical personnel would acknowledge that they do not have a monopoly on the truth about spirituality and ethics, and that obscure cultures should not be ignored (Zavada, 2019).
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Part 2: Explain what scientism is and describe two of the main arguments against it
Scientism contends that hard sciences are the only true source of absolute truths and genuine knowledge thus positioning them to offer superior scientific knowledge. It identifies hard sciences as the subjects relying on experimentation and laws of nature to include physics, biology and physics. The hard sciences rely on factual, replicable and testable data thus making their results reliable. Unlike hard sciences, soft sciences are considered as pseudosciences that present guesses and conjectures that are subject to change that may not be replicable thus making them inferior to hard science. The distinction between hard and soft sciences is based on the perceived value of the information they provide. PHI-413V Ethical and Spiritual Decision Making in Health Care. Hard sciences offer more valuable information since they rely on objective skepticism, experimentation, and falsification to offer explanatory principles. On the other hand, soft sciences rely on subjectivism thereby presenting opportunities for influences from human nature such that it is not uncommon to have contrasting ideas for the same principle (Moreland, 2018). In this respect, scientism identifies hard sciences as having greater intellectual authority over real knowledge when compared to soft sciences.
There are two main arguments offered against scientism. Firstly, hard sciences do not offer absolute truths and facts since they are restructured by the current understanding of the environment and measuring instruments. Things that were previously thought of as absolute truths in hard sciences are not subject to change as new information is presented. This means that information presented by both soft and hard sciences are subject to change over time. Secondly, hard sciences have adopted a tyrannical approach that is over-reliant on rationalism while disregarding personal opinion. These tyrannical approaches end up stifling willful thought that is important for discovering new information, and yet this is important for advancing science. Soft sciences have adopted a more accepting approach that allows for willful thought (Briggs, 2019).
Part 3.
(a) What is ultimate reality?
Ultimate reality is the belief that every individual is the product of interactions with the environment. I am the product of nurture, and my environment determines how I develop into a person. My family, neighborhood, community, city, state, government and other environmental factors have all influenced my development through determining my values, mannerism and thought processes. For instance, I would be more accepting of polygamy if I were a Muslim and less accepting if I were a Christian since the two religious principles differ on their perceptions of number of partners in a valid marriage. As such, ultimate reality looks at how experience affects reasons as well as decision-making and life perceptions. PHI-413V Ethical and Spiritual Decision Making in Health Care.
(b) What is the nature of the universe?
The nature of the universe is that it is always experiencing change with the most basic change being time. The universe relies on energy to drive the change with the extent and direction of change relying on the prioritization processes determined by competition, extinction, evolution, and energy conversion. Competition involves struggle to acquire the scarce energy resources. Extinction involves removal of components that are unable to compete either through direct competition or disaster events. Evolution involves adapting to environmental changes that allow for a better fit. Energy conversion involves changes between the different forms of energy that begins with solar energy being captured by plants.
(c) What is a human being?
A human being can be defined from two perspectives. The first definition is from the religious perspective that identifies God as the creator of human beings. The Christian story of creation advances that humans were created by God in his image with the intention of them to procreate and do his will that includes taking care of other creations and following the Ten Commandments. The second definition is from the biological perspective that identifies humans as products of evolution who have selectively adapted to develop higher thought processes that allows them to adapt the environment to their needs. The higher thought process has allowed humans to develop complex languages and vocabulary, technology and clothes that allow them to use the environment beyond their physical capabilities.
(d) What is knowledge?
Knowledge refers to the unique sets of facts, information, and skills that an individual cognitively acquires through experience and education. Experience involves practice to familiarize with knowledge while education involves attending formal and informal processes to acquire theoretical knowledge. Knowledge allows individuals to have capacity thought processes. For instance, an individual knowledgeable in engineering is able to successfully manage a construction project while an individual knowledgeable in medicine is able to diagnose and treat ailments.
(e) What is your basis of ethics?
My perception of ethics is based on two concepts. The first concept is personal opinion, beliefs and awareness to determine moral right and wrong. This is based on what the environment has taught me. For instance, I personally believe that every person should do honest work to earn a living, and that stealing is wrong. Regardless of my environment and laws, I would find it difficult to steal. The second concept is public principles and beliefs. Although I may have personal beliefs, they may not necessarily match the public beliefs that are determined through public discussions and consensus. For instance, there are ethical principles on how to handle private information within the professional environment, and regardless of my personal beliefs, I am expected to follow the principles. The two concepts interact to determine how I handle ethical situations.
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(f) What is the purpose of your existence?
I have two purposes for existing. My first purpose is to procreate and bring up future generations. This includes getting married, having children, working to earn money, and meeting the needs of my family. Also, it includes taking care of my environment so that my future generations do not suffer for my mistakes. My second purpose is to fulfil God’s will through observing religious principles such as observing the Ten Commandments, and acting in good conscious. I believe that I was created by God to serve, and I only have value for as long as I serve.  As such, my purpose is to procreate, present a better world for future generations, and fulfil God’s will.
References
Briggs, W. (2019). In opposition to scientism. Retrieved from https://wmbriggs.com/post/26885/
Igboin, B. (2015). Spirituality and medical practice: a Christian perspective. Indian Journal of Medical Ethics, 12(4). DOI: 10.20529/IJME.2015.054. Retrieved from http://ijme.in/articles/spirituality-and-medical-practice-a-christian-perspective/?galley=html PHI-413V Ethical and Spiritual Decision Making in Health Care
Moreland, J. (2018). What is scientism? Retrieved from https://www.crossway.org/articles/what-is-scientism/
Zavada, J. (2019). Postmodernism definition. Retrieved from https://www.learnreligions.com/what-is-postmodernism-700692
 
PHI-413V Ethical and Spiritual Decision Making in Health Care Week 2
Based on “Case Study: Fetal Abnormality” and other required topic study materials, write a 750-1,000-word reflection that answers the following questions:

What is the Christian view of the nature of human persons, and which theory of moral status is it compatible with? How is this related to the intrinsic human value and dignity?
Which theory or theories are being used by Jessica, Marco, Maria, and Dr. Wilson to determine the moral status of the fetus? What from the case study specifically leads you to believe that they hold the theory you selected?
How does the theory determine or influence each of their recommendations for action?
What theory do you agree with? Why? How would that theory determine or influence the recommendation for action?

Remember to support your responses with the topic study materials.
While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.
RUBRIC
Attempt Start Date: 16-Mar-2020 at 12:00:00 AM
Due Date: 22-Mar-2020 at 11:59:59 PM
Maximum Points: 200.0
Ethical and spiritual decision making

What is the Christian view of the nature of human persons, and which theory of moral status is it compatible with? How is this related to the intrinsic human value and dignity?

The Christian view advances that God created the universe and everything within it. The creation of humans was not arbitrary, and instead it was purposeful with humans being the perfect image of God. This explains why humans have the capacity for higher thought and enjoy dominion over all other creations. Within this purposeful creation, every creation (including humans) has an intrinsic value. God’s purpose was that every creation should enjoy perfect justice and live. The purpose of creating human beings was to serve and love God in order to bring about the glorious creation plan. The Christian faith proclaims that all human life is sacred, and that the intrinsic dignity in every person is the foundation of the ethical/moral vision for the human society. The implication is that every human being has intrinsic value by virtue of being a human created by God. This value is not conferred by humans. Rather, it is a quality prior to being human (Heinrichs, Oser & Lovat, 2013).
The Christian view on the nature of human persons is aligned with Kantian Ethics, which postulates that human dignity is a status that humans enjoy simply by being humans, and it places the life of humans above all other creations. The implication is that it is an obligation placed on humans to recognize the status of other humans and respect that status as the foundation for all acts of justice (Potter et al., 2018).

Which theory or theories are being used by Jessica, Marco, Maria, and Dr. Wilson to determine the moral status of the fetus? What from the case study specifically leads you to believe that they hold the theory you selected?

The four individuals apply different theories when determining the moral status of the fetus. Firstly, Maria applied the Divine Command Theory when she makes her arguments. She is insistent that God exists and asks Jessica to join her in prayer even as she engages the prayer services of a priest through the phone. In essence, she believes in the existence of God and that there is a divine plan which humans only need to follow as part of God’s will. Also, she believes that every life has value and even the unborn fetus is a life that should enjoy the same rights as other persons. Her belief in God’s will guides her in advising Jessica to keep the pregnancy. As such, Maria bases the status of the fetus on the Christian perspective and believes in doing as God commanded with regards to respecting all life and not killing (Gensler, 2016).
Secondly, Jessica applied Ethical Egoism Theory. The theory allows her to focus on pursuing self-interests. She is worried about her financial situation and feels that she is not ready for the responsibility of taking care of a baby. She is interested in achieving financial stability, and adding an unplanned child would end up derailing her plans through adding to her expenses. Given that she is interested in achieving financial stability, she believes that her best option is to get rid of the fetus so as not to add to her expenses (Gensler, 2016).
Thirdly, Marco applied Virtue Ethics Theory. He bases his ideas of right and wrong on the people around him. He is seeking to do good by Jessica, understands that the child will derail her plans. He is keen on protecting Jessica and feels that bad news should been presented when she is well prepared to receive such news in order to reduce the shock. He is keen on protecting his wife and meeting her needs, and appears less concerned about whether or not the child lives (Gensler, 2016).
Fourthly, Dr. Wilson applied Kantian Ethical Theory. His idea of right and wrong is based on rational thought whereby she applies a cost-benefit analysis to determine the best decision. As a doctor, he understands his position as an impartial party who has a professional duty and obligation to present accurate and truthful information to the patients to allow them make the best decisions. He is keen on presenting the family with comprehensive information ot allow them make informed decisions about the fetus (Gensler, 2016).

How does the theory determine or influence each of their recommendations for action?

The ethical theories applied have influenced the decisions that each one of the four individuals made. Maria applied the Divine Command Theory, and this influenced her to rely on God’s instructions. She seeks interpretation of God’s instructions from a priest and prays in order to get guidance. She believes that Jessica’s pregnancy is the will of God and that she should never consider a termination. Jessica’s recommendations are guided by Ethical Egoism Theory. She has objectives and is keen on pursuing them. She looks at the fetus as a stumbling block in the pursuit of her personal objectives, and believes that she is best served by eliminating the stumbling block. Marco’s recommendations are guided by Virtue Ethics Theory. He is keen on supporting Jessica in pursuing her dreams, and does not want to distress her. He recommends that Jessica should be informed about the case at a time when she has been well primed to receive the information without suffering a shock. Dr. Wilson’s recommendations are guided by Kantian Ethical Theory. He accepts his professional responsibilities as a physician and recommends that the family should make an informed decision after acquiring and evaluating all the information pertaining to the case (Gensler, 2016).

What theory do you agree with? Why? How would that theory determine or influence the recommendation for action?

I agree with Kantian Ethical Theory. Maria, Jessica and Marco make recommendations without first collecting all the information. This implies that they did not make informed recommendations. Kantian ethics requires that they first collect all the information pertaining to the case, and that they should always respect human life. Whichever decision the family makes, it is only right that the decision should be made after evaluating all the associated information.
References
Gensler, H. (2016). Ethics and religion. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Heinrichs, K., Oser, F. & Lovat, T. (2013). Handbook of moral motivation: theories, models, and applications. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
Potter, P., Perry, A., Stockert, P., Hall, A. & Castaldi, P. (2018). Study guide for essentials for nursing practice. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.
PHI-413V Ethical and Spiritual Decision Making in Health Care Week 3
This assignment will incorporate a common practical tool in helping clinicians begin to ethically analyze a case. Organizing the data in this way will help you apply the four principles of principlism.
Based on the “Case Study: Healing and Autonomy” and other required topic study materials, you will complete the “Applying the Four Principles: Case Study” document that includes the following:
Part 1: Chart 
This chart will formalize principlism and the four-boxes approach by organizing the data from the case study according to the relevant principles of biomedical ethics: autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice.
Part 2: Evaluation
This part includes questions, to be answered in a total of 500 words, that describe how principalism would be applied according to the Christian worldview.
Remember to support your responses with the topic study materials.
APA style is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.
You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.
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AttachmentsPHI-413V-RS-T3ApplyingFourPrinciplesCaseStudy.docx
Attempt Start Date: 23-Mar-2020 at 12:00:00 AM
Due Date: 29-Mar-2020 at 11:59:59 PM
Maximum Points: 150.0
Applying the Four Principles: Case Study
Part 1: Chart (60 points)
Based on the “Healing and Autonomy” case study, fill out all the relevant boxes below. Provide the information by means of bullet points or a well-structured paragraph in the box. Gather as much data as possible.
 

Medical Indications
Beneficence and Nonmaleficence
Patient Preferences
Autonomy

·         James is suck and suffers from an acute case of kidney failure.
·         His care was delayed as his parents relied on faith and took him away from hospital.
·         His condition has worsened following the delayed treatment.
·         He requires regular dialysis in order to continue surviving.
·         He requires a healthy kidney transplant in order to conclusively address his condition with no reoccurrence or continued kidney difficulties.
·         James’ twin brother (Samuel) could be an ideal organ transplant match, and could be a donor for the transplant surgery.
·         James getting well so that his kidney is no longer diseased.
·         Rely on the power of religious faith to heal James, and not rely on medical treatment.
·         Not having to harvest the organ from Samuel for James. PHI-413V Ethical and Spiritual Decision Making in Health Care

Quality of Life
Beneficence, Nonmaleficence, Autonomy
Contextual Features
Justice and Fairness

·         James’ situation appears grim since he currently relies on regular dialysis and will continue this reliance unless he can get a healthy kidney transplant.
·         His condition initially loosened but has stabilized following the regular dialysis.
·         His parents feel it is appropriate to consult him on whether to explore the surgery option and if Samuel can be considered as a donor since they feel that he has a say in the issue, and their previous decision to withdraw him from treatment worsened the medical condition.
·         The parents are questioning their decisions, and whether it caused the medical condition to worsen.
·         The parents are questioning if their faith was not enough or if they were meant to seek medical treatment for James and that their procrastination had worsened the condition.
·         They are exploring the possibility of faith working, and are continuing with faith-based approaches alongside medical intervention.

 
 
Part 2: Evaluation
Answer each of the following questions about how principlism would be applied:

In 200-250 words answer the following: According to the Christian worldview, which of the four principles is most pressing in this case? Explain why. (45 points)

According to the Christian worldview, the most pressing principle in the present case is medical indication. James is in a precarious situation. His medical condition has worsened and he has become increasingly reliant on regular dialysis. He can only get off the dialysis by receiving a kidney transplant. He is likely to die if he stops receiving dialysis and does not get a healthy kidney. The Bible supports this view by indicating that the most important value for any Christian is to love himself/herself and to love others with the same measure. In this case, love applies to meeting all the associated needs of the individual, a value that every Christian must apply. For that matter, loving an individual involves providing the basic needs that include food, clothing, shelter and medical care. For the persons who are without food, loving them implies providing food, and for those who are sick, loving them involving relieving the sickness. James is sick and loving him would involve providing healing, something that could only proceed after medical indication. The medical facility and personnel are specifically prepared to determine and provide James’ health care needs. PHI-413V Ethical and Spiritual Decision Making in Health Care. This means that it is present that have James follow the advice offered by medical personnel who are uniquely primed to provide the healing he needs. Providing medical care implies loving James as indicated in the Bible (James 5:14, KJV). Besides that, Jesus Christ was a healer in the Bible, and there are stories of him healing the sick. This validates medical care as it can be argued that since Christ was a physician, then medicine should be accepted by Christians (Mark 8:2, KJV; Matthew 25:36, KJV). In addition, the Bible asks that Christians provide relief for everyone who is suffering. James is suffering with failing kidney and there is a high possibility of his condition worsening if he does not receive the appropriate medical care. Receiving medical care will alleviate his diseased condition, relieve the suffering, and provide healing (Matthew 25:40, KJV). Overall, the most pressing principle is medical indication since there is a need to understanding James’ health condition and provide the appropriate healing.

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In 200-250 words answer the following: According to the Christian worldview, how might a Christian rank the priority of the four principles? Explain why. (45 points)

According to the Christian worldview, medical indication should be prioritized among the four principles. The Christian religion attaches much importance to compassion and love, especially for the vulnerable persons who are unable to take care of themselves and need care from others. Christianity does not allow for unnecessary suffering, something that must be controlled since James is experiencing unnecessary suffering. James has failing kidneys and they are causing him to suffer unnecessarily, and yet medical care can alleviate his condition (Matthew 22:39, KJV; 1 John 4:7, KJV). The second principle in the order of priority is the quality of life. James is heavily dependent on dialysis to continue surviving. This implies that he has a low quality of life and he could lose his life if the situation continues. Christians have an obligation to apply proportional measures to improve the quality of life of those who are sick and suffering (Igboin, 2015). Although Christianity allows for suffering as a part of life, it does not allow for unnecessary suffering. Just means should always be used to relieve unnecessary suffering. Life is given by God and it is right that James suffering should be relieved. Using medical care is a just means for relieving James’ suffering and improving his quality of life. The third principle in the order of priority is patient preference. James must always be allowed to make decisions involving his life. Christianity advocates for freewill, and states that every person will be judged for his/her actions. The decision about medical care should be left to James with the appropriate advice provided so that he is enabled to make an informed decision (Carden, 2013; Newton, 2015). The fourth principle in the order of priority is contextual features. That is because they inform the prevailing situation. Irrespective of whether or not questions about faith are presented, the situation demands that an urgent decision be made about James’ care. He is suffering and needs medical attention in order to alleviate his situation. The medical personnel can only offer advice and information to facilitate informed decision making *Heinrichs, Oser & Lovat, 2013). PHI-413V Ethical and Spiritual Decision Making in Health Care.

 
References:
Carden, P. (2013). Rose Bible basics: Christianity, cults & religion (7th ed.). Carson, CA: Rose Publishing Inc.
Heinrichs, K., Oser, F. & Lovat, T. (2013). Handbook of moral motivation: theories, models, and applications. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
Igboin, B. (2015). Spirituality and medical practice: a Christian perspective. Indian Journal of Medical Ethics, 12(4). DOI: 10.20529/IJME.2015.054
Newton, J. (2015). The revelation worldview: apocalyptic thinking in a postmodern world. Eugene, OR: WIPF & STOCK.
PHI-413V Ethical and Spiritual Decision Making in Health Care Week 4
The practice of health care providers at all levels brings you into contact with people from a variety of faiths. This calls for knowledge and understanding of a diversity of faith expressions; for the purpose of this course, the focus will be on the Christian worldview.
Based on “Case Study: End of Life Decisions,” the Christian worldview, and the worldview questions presented in the required topic study materials you will complete an ethical analysis of George’s situation and his decision from the perspective of the Christian worldview. PHI-413V Ethical and Spiritual Decision Making in Health Care
Provide a 1,500-2,000-word ethical analysis while answering the following questions:

How would George interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative, with an emphasis on the fallenness of the world?
How would George interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative, with an emphasis on the hope of resurrection?
As George contemplates life with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), how would the Christian worldview inform his view about the value of his life as a person?
What sorts of values and considerations would the Christian worldview focus on in deliberating about whether or not George should opt for euthanasia?
Based on the values and considerations above, what options would be morally justified in the Christian worldview for George and why?
Based on your worldview, what decision would you make if you were in George’s situation?

Remember to support your responses with the topic study materials.
Prepare this PHI-413V Ethical and Spiritual Decision Making in Health Care assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is required.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.
RUBRIC
Attempt Start Date: 30-Mar-2020 at 12:00:00 AM
Due Date: 05-Apr-2020 at 11:59:59 PM
Maximum Points: 200.0
Ethical and spiritual decision making in health care
Death is an inevitable event to all biological life, to include humans. For whatever reason, whether intentional, accidental and logical progression, all biological life must come to an end thereby completing the process that began at conception. Still, medical sciences have made significant advances that have changed the traditional concept of death such that interventions are now available for prolonging life and enabling continued life where previously death would have been the inevitable outcome. In fact, end of life care has changed the concept of death through intervening to support the biological systems and allow for continued life in the face of terminal illness, although it incurs significant costs and lowers the quality of life. This state of affairs (the medical advances) has created a unique situation in which individuals faced with death now have the opportunity to access medical care that prolongs their lives (Ferngen, 2014). Although the advances in medical sciences have presented opportunities for prolonging life, they simply slow down the process of death and do not offer a promise of recovery since it typically involves patients being connected to

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