PICA Eating Disorder parent guide brochure Essay

PICA Eating Disorder parent guide brochure Essay
This needs to be like a parent guide brochure covering the following areas
Signs and symptoms
Pathophysiology
How the disorder is diagnosed
Treatment options Thanks
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Pica is an eating disorder characterized by eating non-food products that do not contain significant nutritional value. E.g. paint chips, dirt, soap, paper, ash, charcoal, chalk, soil, ice, starch, clay, wool, cloth, string and hair (Hartmann & Jurilj, 2017).
Signs and Symptoms

Stomach pain
Stomach upset
Blood in stool
Bowel problems. E.g. diarrhea or constipation
Developmentally inappropriate ingestion of substances
Eating substances that are not socially normative practice or culturally supported for at least once a month
PICA Eating Disorder parent guide brochure Essay

 
Diagnosis

Clinical history
No laboratory tests
Anemia tests

Pica is related to: (Delaney et al., 2015)

Obsessive compulsive disorder
Micronutrient deficiency
Neurological conditions
Gastrointestinal distress

 
Pathophysiology

Brain damage due to poisoning. E.g. from consuming lead vanishes and paints
Neurological problems
Death
Gastrointestinal tract damage causing constipation, abdominal distention, nausea, ulceration
Deficiency of minerals and nutrients: E.g. Vitamin C and D, Zinc, Iron, Phosphorous, Calcium, Thiamin, niacin
Dental abnormalities e.g. tooth surface loss, abrasion, abfraction and mouth cancer. (Nayak et al., 2017)
Infection and parasitic infestation
Toxocariasis and  Ascariasis can occur from consumption of soil
PICA Eating Disorder parent guide brochure Essay

 
Treatment

Correction of mineral deficiencies
Behavioral interventions
Redirection of attention away from desired substances
Rewards for discarding non-food items
Physical restraint (Kennedy, Wick & Keel, 2018).

 
References
Delaney, C. B., Eddy, K. T., Hartmann, A. S., Becker, A. E., Murray, H. B., & Thomas, J. J. (2015). Pica and rumination behavior among individuals seeking treatment for eating disorders or obesity. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 48(2), 238-248.
Hartmann, A. S., & Jurilj, V. (2017). Pica. In Handbook of DSM-5 Disorders in Children and Adolescents (pp. 319-332). Springer, Cham.
Kennedy, G. A., Wick, M. R., & Keel, P. K. (2018). Eating disorders in children: is avoidant-restrictive food intake disorder a feeding disorder or an eating disorder and what are the implications for treatment?. F1000Research, 7.
Nayak, S. V., Kini, R., Shetty, U., Rao, P. K., Kashyap, R. R., & Bhandarkar, G. (2017). Pica-an eating disorder: A report and review. Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences, 5(1), 82. PICA Eating Disorder parent guide brochure Essay

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