PICOT Statement and Literature Search example essays

PICOT Statement and Literature Search example essays
The first step of the EBP process is to develop a question from the nursing practice problem of interest.
Select a practice problem of interest to use as the focus of your research PICOT Statement and Literature Search example essays.
Start with the patient and identify the clinical problems or issues that arise from clinical care.
Following the PICOT format, write a PICOT statement in your selected practice problem area of interest, which is applicable to your proposed capstone project.
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The PICOT statement will provide a framework for your capstone project (the project students must complete during their final course in the RN-BSN program of study).
Conduct a literature search to locate research articles focused on your selected practice problem of interest. This literature search should include both quantitative and qualitative peer-reviewed research articles to support your practice problem.
Select six peer-reviewed research articles which will be utilized through the next 5 weeks as reference sources. Be sure that some of the articles use qualitative research and that some use quantitative research. Create a reference list in which the six articles are listed. Beneath each reference include the article’s abstract. The completed PICOT Statement and Literature Search example essays assignment should have a title page and a reference list with abstracts.
Suggestions for locating qualitative and quantitative research articles from credible sources:
Use a library database such as CINAHL Complete for your search.
Using the advanced search page check the box beside ”Research Article” in the ”Limit Your Results” section.
When setting up the search you can type your topic in the top box, then add quantitative or qualitative as a search term in one of the lower boxes. Research articles often are described as qualitative or quantitative. PICOT Statement and Literature Search example essays.
To narrow/broaden your search, remove the words qualitative and quantitative and include words that narrow or broaden your main topic. For example: Diabetes and pediatric and dialysis. To determine what research design was used, review the abstract and the methods section of the article. The author will provide a description of data collection using qualitative or quantitative methods.
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required. PICOT Statement and Literature Search example essays.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
PICOT Question and Literature Search
Nursing practice problem
Although nicotine replacement therapy is acknowledged as a strategy for smoking cessation, its efficacy is not well established. As such, there is a need to provide tangible evidence that compares nicotine replacement therapy with other strategies applied for the same purpose. The intention is to establish whether nicotine replacement therapy is worth receiving special attention from nursing practitioners. PICOT Statement and Literature Search example essays.
PICOT Statement
Population: in cigarette smokers older than 17 years
Intervention: does nicotine replacement therapy
Control: versus using other smoking cessation therapies
Outcome: affect smoking cessation outcomes
Time: over a period of three months?
Literature Search (References List and Abstract)
Silla, K., Beard, E. & Shahab, L. (2014). Nicotine replacement therapy use among smokers and ex-smokers: associated attitudes and beliefs: a qualitative study. BMC Public Health, 14, 1311. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-1311 PICOT Statement and Literature Search example essays
Abstract
Background: Smokers who are unwilling or unable to quit smoking may benefit from using nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for harm reduction. This may include the partial or complete substitution of cigarettes with NRT. A taxonomy of the characteristics of those using NRT for harm reduction would be helpful in tailoring advice and treatment. Although attempts to categorize those using NRT for harm reduction have been made, these have largely been based on quantitative data. PICOT Statement and Literature Search example essays. In order to provide further in-depth exploration of views, beliefs and experiences, the current study probed issues surrounding NRT and harm reduction qualitatively to better understand barriers and facilitators to this approach.
Methods: Three groups of participants (n = 15) were recruited from a student sample: current smokers with a history of NRT use, smokers without a history of NRT use, and ex-smokers with a history of NRT use. Participants were asked about their demographic characteristics, smoking behaviors, intention and perceived ability to quit smoking, awareness and use of NRT, beliefs about the health consequences of using NRT, and the safety and efficacy of NRT, using semi-structured telephone interviews.
Results: Twenty-four themes were identified; these themes were clustered into three main issues of cross-cutting themes: attitudes towards smoking and motivation to quit; smoking reduction and quit attempts; and beliefs, use and concerns about NRT. Those with a history of NRT use were more motivated and engaged with the quitting process than non-users. However, irrespective of smoking status and past NRT use, all participants showed misperceptions about NRT, such as the health consequences associated with NRT use.
Conclusions: NRT users are more motivated to quit smoking than non-users and are more likely to employ techniques to assist their cessation attempts. The majority of smokers have misperceptions regarding the safety and efficacy of NRT which may act as a barrier to its usage.
Barbeau, A., Burda, J. & Siegel, M. (2013). Perceived efficacy of e-cigarettes versus nicotine replacement therapy among successful e-cigarette users: a qualitative approach. Addict Sci Clin Pract., 8, 5. doi: 10.1186/1940-0640-8-5 PICOT Statement and Literature Search example essays.
Abstract
Background: Nicotine is widely recognized as an addictive psychoactive drug. Since most smokers are bio-behaviorally addicted, quitting can be very difficult and is often accompanied by withdrawal symptoms. Research indicates that nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) can double quit rates PICOT Statement and Literature Search example essays. However, the success rate for quitting remains low. E-cigarettes (electronic cigarettes) are battery-powered nicotine delivery devices used to inhale doses of vaporized nicotine from a handheld device similar in shape to a cigarette without the harmful chemicals present in tobacco products. Anecdotal evidence strongly suggests that e-cigarettes may be effective in helping smokers quit and preventing relapse, but there have been few published qualitative studies, especially among successful e-cigarette users, to support this evidence.
Methods: Qualitative design using focus groups (N = 11); 9 men and 2 women. Focus groups were conducted by posing open-ended questions relating to the use of e-cigarettes, comparison of effectiveness between NRTs and e-cigarettes, barriers to quitting, and reasons for choosing e-cigarettes over other methods. PICOT Statement and Literature Search example essays.
Results: Five themes emerged that describe users’ perceptions of why e-cigarettes are efficacious in quitting smoking: 1) bio-behavioral feedback, 2) social benefits, 3) hobby elements, 4) personal identity, and 5) distinction between smoking cessation and nicotine cessation. Additionally, subjects reported their experiences with NRTs compared with e-cigarettes, citing negative side effects of NRTs and their ineffectiveness at preventing relapse.
Conclusion: These findings suggest tobacco control practitioners must pay increased attention to the importance of the behavioral and social components of smoking addiction. PICOT Statement and Literature Search example essays. By addressing these components in addition to nicotine dependence, e-cigarettes appear to help some tobacco smokers transition to a less harmful replacement tool, thereby maintaining cigarette abstinence.
Buller, D., Halperin, A., Severson, H., Borland, R., Slater, M., Bettinghaus, E., Tinkelman, D., Cutter, G. & Woodall, G. (2014). Effect of Nicotine Replacement Therapy on Quitting by Young Adults in a Trial Comparing Cessation Services. J Public Health Manag Pract., 20(2), E7-E15. doi: 10.1097/PHH.0b013e3182a0b8c7
Abstract
Context: Young adult smokers have the highest smoking prevalence among all US age groups but are least likely to use evidence-based cessation counseling or medication to quit.
Objective: Use and effectiveness of nicotine patch were explored in a randomized trial evaluating smoking cessation interventions with this population.
Participants: Smokers aged 18 to 30 (n = 3094) were recruited through online and off-line methods and from telephone quit lines and analyzed. PICOT Statement and Literature Search example essays.
Design: Smokers were enrolled in a pretest-posttest trial, and randomized to 1 of 3 cessation services.
Setting: Trial delivering counseling services by self-help booklet, telephone quit lines, or online expert system in the 48 continental United States.
Intervention: Smokers could request a free 2-week course of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) patches from the project.
Main Outcome Measure: Follow-up surveys at 12 and 26 weeks assessed smoking abstinence, use of NRT, counseling, and other cessation medications, and smoking-related variables.
Results: Overall, 69.0% of smokers reported using NRT (M = 3.2 weeks) at 12 weeks and 74.8% (M = 3.3 weeks) at 26 weeks. More smokers who were sent the free nicotine patches (n = 1695; 54.8%) reported using NRT than those who did not receive them (12 weeks: 84.3% vs 41.9%, P < .001; 26 weeks: 87.6% vs 51.1%, P < .001). The use of NRT was associated with greater smoking abstinence at 12 weeks (P < .001) and 26 weeks (P < .05), especially if used for more than 2 weeks (P < .001). Smokers assigned to a self-help booklet or cessation Web site and heavier smokers were most likely to use NRT (P < .05), whereas those reporting marijuana use and binge drinking used NRT less (P < .05). PICOT Statement and Literature Search example essays. Conclusions: Many young adults were willing to try NRT, and it appeared to help them quit in the context of community-based cessation services. Strategies should be developed to make NRT available to this age group and support them in using it to prevent lifelong smoking. Rath, J., Villanti, A., Abrams, D. & Vallone, D. (2012). Patterns of Tobacco Use and Dual Use in US Young Adults: The Missing Link between Youth Prevention and Adult Cessation. Journal of Environmental and Public Health, Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 679134. doi: 10.1155/2012/679134 Abstract Few studies address the developmental transition from youth tobacco use uptake to regular adulthood use, especially for noncigarette tobacco products. The current study uses online panel data from the Legacy Young Adult Cohort Study to describe the prevalence of cigarette, other tobacco product, and dual use in a nationally representative sample of young adults aged 18-34 (N = 4,201). Of the 23% of young adults who were current tobacco users, 30% reported dual use. Ever use, first product used, and current use were highest for cigarettes, cigars, little cigars, and hookah. Thirty-two percent of ever tobacco users reported tobacco product initiation after the age of 18 and 39% of regular users reported progressing to regular use during young adulthood. This study highlights the need for improved monitoring of polytobacco use across the life course and developing tailored efforts for young adults to prevent progression and further reduce overall population prevalence. PICOT Statement and Literature Search example essays. Thurgood, S., McNeill, A., Clark-Carter, D. & Brose, L. (2015). A Systematic Review of Smoking Cessation Interventions for Adults in Substance Abuse Treatment or Recovery. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 18(5), 993-1001. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntv127 Abstract Introduction: The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions for patients with substance use disorders. The secondary aim was to evaluate impact on substance use treatment outcomes. Methods: Randomized controlled trials involving adult smokers, recently or currently receiving inpatient or outpatient treatment for substance use disorders were reviewed. Databases, grey literature, reference lists, and journals were searched for relevant studies between 1990 and August 2014. Two authors extracted data and assessed quality. The primary outcome was biochemically verified continuous abstinence from smoking at 6 or 12 months, secondary outcomes were biochemically verified 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence (PPA) at 6 or 12 months and substance use outcomes PICOT Statement and Literature Search example essays. Heterogeneity between studies precluded pooled analyses of the data. Results: Seventeen of 847 publications were included. Five studies reported significant effects on smoking cessation: (1) nicotine patches improved continuous abstinence at 6 months; (2) nicotine gum improved continuous abstinence at 12 months; (3) counseling, contingency management and relapse prevention improved continuous abstinence at 6 and 12 months; (4) cognitive behavioral therapy, plus nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), improved PPA at 6 months; and (5) a combination of bupropion, NRT, counseling and contingency management improved PPA at 6 months. Two studies showed some evidence of improved substance use outcomes with the remaining eight studies measuring substance use outcomes showing no difference. Conclusions: NRT, behavioral support, and combination approaches appear to increase smoking abstinence in those treated for substance use disorders. Higher quality studies are required to strengthen the evidence base. Garcia-Rodriguez, O., Secades-Villa, R., Florez-Salamanca, L., Okuda, M., Liu, S. & Blanco, C. (2014). Effect of Nicotine Replacement Therapy on Quitting by Young Adults in a Trial Comparing Cessation Services. Drug Alcohol Depend., 132(3), 479-485. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.03.008 PICOT Statement and Literature Search example essays. Abstract Context: Young adult smokers have the highest smoking prevalence among all US age groups but are least likely to use evidence-based cessation counseling or medication to quit. Objective: Use and effectiveness of nicotine patch were explored in a randomized trial evaluating smoking cessation interventions with this population. PICOT Statement and Literature Search example essays. Participants: Smokers aged 18 to 30 (n = 3094) were recruited through online and off-line methods and from telephone quit lines and analyzed. Design: Smokers were enrolled in a pretest-posttest trial, and randomized to 1 of 3 cessation services. Setting: Trial delivering counseling services by self-help booklet, telephone quit lines, or online expert system in the 48 continental United States. Intervention: Smokers could request a free 2-week course of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) patches from the project. Main Outcome Measure: Follow-up surveys at 12 and 26 weeks assessed smoking abstinence, use of NRT, counseling, and other cessation medications, and smoking-related variables PICOT Statement and Literature Search example essays. Results: Overall, 69.0% of smokers reported using NRT (M = 3.2 weeks) at 12 weeks and 74.8% (M = 3.3 weeks) at 26 weeks. More smokers who were sent the free nicotine patches (n = 1695; 54.8%) reported using NRT than those who did not receive them (12 weeks: 84.3% vs 41.9%, P < .001; 26 weeks: 87.6% vs 51.1%, P < .001). The use of NRT was associated with greater smoking abstinence at 12 weeks (P < .001) and 26 weeks (P < .05), especially if used for more than 2 weeks (P < .001). Smokers assigned to a self-help booklet or cessation Web site and heavier smokers were most likely to use NRT (P < .05), whereas those reporting marijuana use and binge drinking used NRT less (P < .05). Conclusions: Many young adults were willing to try NRT, and it appeared to help them quit in the context of community-based cessation services. Strategies should be developed to make NRT available to this age group and support them in using it to prevent lifelong smoking. PICOT Statement and Literature Search example essays.

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