Studies warn about medicalization of gender; this includes how the contemporary cultures tell customers about what they are supposed to appear like in order to be recognized positively. She argues that cosmetic surgery treatment also includes racial and cultural values. A new lifestyle of personality in United States is preempting the significance in personal overall look and “self-presentation.” In this new environment, facial lines and sags became difficult instead of the regular and predicted effects of aging. With this new social milieu, other organizations of group, such as the press, proved helpful to market and impact social ideas of beauty and ideal sex features (western concepts) which was consumed by the medical group and created into a product for customers (Abate 726).

Further, Abate describes the process and the result of a cosmetic surgery using medical career; the medical career in the United States is becoming complicated and confusing. It is distressing that man doctors are the fixers of the women reproduction body. From a feminist viewpoint, this is exactly how the healthcare organization explains and fixes women requirements of elegance, which unavoidably determines their womanhood. This is even more keenly confirmed in techniques such as labioplasty, which try to modify the vaginal canal to make sure its deficiency or any clinging areas. The medicalization of sex supports values of womanliness and even becoming a mother that is determined and formed by patriarchy.

Men too are victims of medicalization of sex, especially concerning penis wellness and performance in sex. In an outstanding content, this has been dubbed “fixing broken masculinity” Men’s impotence and dysfunctional penis have been described as poorly performing device, and sexuality and the capability to get an erection is important to men identification. Plastic surgery impacts the national and cultural values and concepts. Due to the progressively international group and constant exposure to European graphic lifestyle, the values of sex and elegance that have the most exposure are those of the Europeans; light skin, slimmer women systems with overstated boobies and butt and men protected in muscle cells. In Asia, an amazingly well-liked aesthetic process, especially with pop idols, is called blepharoplasty, which eliminates cells from the top of eye lid to present more of the eye and provide a “double eyelid” seen as a spot of beauty. This research focuses on merits and demerits of plastic surgery. In essence, this research highlights the controversial issues of plastic surgery; its ethical implications, the question of choice versus treatment, its social significance, and it continuity in the future.

Advantages of Plastic Surgery

Plastic surgery has been used to repair the mutilated body parts of US soldiers after surviving and returning home. Dao (1) recounts the event of Afghanistan war survivor and US war veteran who underwent entire body reconstruction surgery in Florida. After waking up, the victim could hardly recognize himself; his lips, eyes, nose and ears were badly disfigured. The entire face had suffered serious burns and some of his facial parts were missing. This is one example of many instances of US war veterans; they suffer a lot of physical and psychological damage. Later, the victim walked in a hospital concealing his face I a hooded jacket, probably to contain his emotional damage. He underwent a plastic surgery where most of his organs were artificially restored (Dao 2).

Stems cells have been used to replace damaged and missing cheekbones. These multifaceted cells which were previously used to repair damaged hearts have found significant application in bone surgeries. The advantage of this application is that it will benefit a lot of people ranging from cancer patients, accident casualties and war veterans. This procedure has been a medical breakthrough in since it can get important application in plastics, neural and orthopedic surgeries. The procedure has solved many problems since previous procedures applied foreign materials like plastics and metals. Consequent surgeries were dangerous and difficult to perform (Harmon 1).

Previous operations were associated with many rejections, complications and failed attempts. With the current procedure, the bone is not artificial and it can heal by itself since it is grown from stem cells. The procedure has been used to repair facial defects in patients who were born with those defects. Some patients are born without some of their facial bones, like cheekbones or zygomatic bones. The surgery is able to give the patient a normal face, and is able to get rid of vulnerabilities associated with these abnormalities. In a typical case, the surgery was used to fix a face that was sloped inward and to raise the eyes which had been sloped downward. The surgery introduced the missing bones and protected the vulnerable eyes (Harmon 1).

An advantage of plastic surgery is its ability to heal the physical and psychological pain of trauma patients. Trauma victims, accidents victims, assault victims with injured or burnt body parts benefit a lot from plastic surgery. According to experts, psychological implications of living with the memory of a disaster can be vey disturbing. Plastic surgery “helps disaster patients to forget” what they have gone through. The same procedures benefit cancer patients who are forced to lose some of their body parts. It is painful enough to be a cancer patient; plastic surgery can relieve the emotional pain that they go through after losing their body parts (Jesitus 1)…”


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