Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations Examples

Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations Examples
Write a critical appraisal that demonstrates comprehension of two qualitative research studies. Use the ”Research Critique Guidelines – Part 1” document to organize your essay. Successful completion of this assignment requires that you provide rationale, include examples, and reference content from the studies in your responses.
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Use the practice problem and two qualitative, peer-reviewed research article you identified in the Topic 1 assignment to complete this assignment. Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations Examples.
In a 1,000–1,250 word Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations Examples essay, summarize two qualitative studies, explain the ways in which the findings might be used in nursing practice, and address ethical considerations associated with the conduct of the study.
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
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Research Critique Guidelines – Part I
Qualitative Studies
Background of Study

Summary of studies. Include problem, significance to nursing, purpose, objective, and research question.

How do these two articles support the nurse practice issue you chose?

Discuss how these two articles willbe used to answer your PICOT question.
Describe how the interventions and comparison groups in the articles compare to those identified in your PICOT question.

Method of Study:

State the methods of the two articles you are comparing and describe how they are different Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations Examples.
Consider the methods you identified in your chosen articles and state one benefit and one limitation of each method.

Results of Study

Summarize the key findings of each study in one or two comprehensive paragraphs.
What are the implications of the two studies in nursing practice?

Ethical Considerations

Discuss two ethical consideration in conducting research.
Describe how the researchers in the two articles you choose took these ethical considerations into account while performing their research. Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations Examples.

 
Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations Examples – 1
Introduction and Background of the Study
Individuals aged 65 years and over exhibit a greater prevalence of the problem of multi-morbidity, or sufferance from multiple chronic health conditions, that require a multiplicity of medications for purposes of managing symptoms and preventing future problems. A combination of these healthcare needs, along with age-connected pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes often increase the complexity of medical prescription in this special patient population. Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations Examples.
Administration of inappropriate prescriptions is a common clinical problem affecting the population of elderly persons in primary nursing care. This reality has been the focus of a significant number of qualitative clinical research studies. Upon recognition of the reality that a limited number of studies have been design to qualitatively explore the phenomenon of potentially inappropriate prescribing, Clyne et al. (2016) conducted a qualitative study to investigate this clinical problem as well as its underlying mechanisms from the viewpoints of general practitioners. Their study aimed at a qualitative exploration of general practitioners’ perspectives concerning prescribing and the problem of inappropriate prescriptions in elderly primary nursing care patients. This was their main research problem and the focus their qualitative study (Clyne et al, 2016).
Having identified the research gap and research problem, the authors established their study’s significance by highlighting the public health concerns associated with inappropriate prescribing in elderly patients. According to Clyne et al (2016), the need to study the phenomenon of potentially inappropriate prescribing arises from the commonly reported consequences of such practice in elderly persons, including a potential for an increase in the prevalence of morbidity, increased hospitalization, and lower health-linked quality of life, as well as a rise in ADEs. According to the study, patients are also likely to face the healthcare risk of polypharmacy. These drugs may also lead to elderly falls that are likely to increase healthcare problems for patients.
There are a number of possible questions explored by the study. What is the prevalence of inappropriate prescribing in elderly persons? What are the clinical ramifications or healthcare consequences of inappropriate prescribing? How best can the problem be reduced? Finally, the paper’s primary focus is: what are the clinician perspectives with respect to the phenomenon of potentially inappropriate prescriptions? Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations Examples.
The purpose of Clyne et al (2016) research paper is conduct an exploration of the general practitioners’ perspectives concerning the inappropriate prescription and its impact in elderly primary care patients. There is a substantial connection between the research questions and the purpose of the study as demonstrated in their article.
Method of Study
The authors used semi-structured qualitative interviews as their method in order to investigate the perspectives of general practitioners in a randomized controlled trail design geared toward decreasing the prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescription in elderly patients that would lead to the capstone project’s primary concern of elderly falls and the associated comorbidities. While their focus was on the population of patients in Ireland that were 70 years or older, their application of the quality method was appropriate because the study sought to explore the opinions of general practitioners which, by and large, is a qualitative attribute than can be more effectively explored using the qualitative method. Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations Examples.
The authors identified a substantial number of qualitative as well as quantitative studies from literature that were relevant to their study and the focus of the research, and which focused on the clinical issue of inappropriate prescribing and the associated consequences and potential interventions. The literature used is largely based on peer-reviewed journal articles that are accessible in public databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and PubMed Central Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations Examples. The articles used in the study are largely current, although the authors have also relied on qualitative articles that date back to 2003, which is still acceptable within the qualitative criterion of article currency. The chosen articles are notably relevant to the topic of research.
Although the authors have used a broad range of relevant peer-reviewed articles, there is limited or no indication or evaluation of the potential weaknesses of the studies used. However, the article’s literature review relied upon adequate data and information on the subject of inappropriate prescribing and its consequences on the elderly population in an effort to build their logical arguments and lay out the results of their findings.  Moreover, the authors did not explicitly make develop a particular framework from findings of their study, though their study was based on the OPTI-SCRIPT evaluation process.
Results of Study
Clyne et al. (2016) conducted seventeen semi-structure qualitative interviews involving 13 males and 4 female participants. Results from the findings of their studies identified three primary interrelated themes including complex prescription environment, paternalistic relationships between doctors and patients, and the relevance of potentially inappropriate prescribing as a concept. Patient complexity—including multi-morbidity and polypharmacy, and prescriber complexity—seen in terms of the existence of multiple prescribers, restriction in autonomy, and poor communication were identified in the study as some of the main factors creating complexity in the prescribing setting in which there is a greater chance that potentially inappropriate prescription could possibly take place.
The study is an important contributor to the nursing knowledge with respect to the topic of inappropriate prescription in elderly persons. Its use of qualitative approach was instrumental to nursing literature and body of knowledge in the sense that it enabled the exploration of the complex clinical issues of inappropriate prescribing in elderly primary care in a manner that is unavailable to most quantitative studies. The study has identified a number of interrelated variables that influence the potential occurrence of inappropriate prescribing and older patient medication, which are important to nursing intervention and practice, including the need to improve the management of multi-morbidity and polypharmacy, and to achieve a decrease in potentially inappropriate prescriptions and medications that would lead to such consequences as falling in older persons. The findings of the study are also largely applicable to nursing education in terms of informing the general practitioners and clinicians of the need to understand the concept and processes of potentially inappropriate prescribing Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations Examples.
Ethical Considerations
Clyne et al (2016)’s study received ethical approval to conduct their research from the Irish College of General Practitioners’ Research Ethics Committee. The participants were provided with written information, and consented to participation into the research study. Although there is no reason to doubt it, there little information pointing to the protection of patient privacy
Conclusion
Potentially inappropriate medication is a common problem in elderly populations, and is linked to a rise in the number of injurious and sometimes fatal falls among this vulnerable patient population in primary care. Clyne et al. Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations Examples (2016) have conducted a clinically relevant qualitative study to identify factors that potentially influence the occurrence of this clinical problem including the prescription environment complexity, and paternalistic relationships between doctors and patients, as well as the little significance that general practitioners have attached to this growing public health concern. Thus, further research is needed to develop interventions that address the noted challenges and improve nursing care for elderly persons.
Good description.  Ultimately the goal of qualitative data analysis is to organize the data by theme.  This is done through reading and re-reading the transcripts to find the common themes. Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations Examples.
Reference
Clyne, B., Cooper, J. A., Hughes, C. M., Fahey, T., & Smith, S. M. (2016). ‘Potentially inappropriate or specifically appropriate?’ Qualitative evaluation of general practitioners views on prescribing, polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate prescribing in older people. BMC Family Practice, 17(1), 109
 
Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations Examples – 2
Research Critique: Compassion fatigue
Research on compassion fatigue has been completed identifying the problems faced by most oncology as well as emergency nurses. Compassion fatigue has been compared to burnout, displaced traumatization displaced traumatization, secondary disturbing stress disorder, compassion stress among other problem affecting the quality of service among nurses. Nurses experiencing compassion fatigue identified as having a contrasting view about the nursing practices and patient care. Study by Coetzee, & Klopper (2010), notes that “Nurses, self-identified as having compassion fatigue, described a change in their practice by which they began to shield and distance themselves from the suffering of patients and families.” That reduces the time that the nurses would have used to treat the patients and families. This creates a divide that affects not only the relationship between patients and nurses but also, the overall delivery of care.
Background of study
Among the problems facing the nursing practice today, compassion fatigue is the top problem affecting especially the oncology and emergency department nurses. The problem affects the overall healthcare leading to job dissatisfaction, poor quality of care and retention in nursing workforce. Different qualitative research has been completed addressing this problem and the factors contributing to the escalating cases of compassion fatigue. However, most methods used in these studies are not conclusive enough to provide results highlighting where this problem begin and which concrete measures need to be taken to solve the problem in the future of nursing practice. Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations Examples.
Problem statement
Given the increased cases of unproductivity in nursing practice, the study by Petleski, T. A. (2013) aimed to study the contributing factors leading to poor quality of services among nurses especially those working in emergency nurse department. Compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion stress are identified as the leading factors affecting the nurses especially those working in busy and engaging departments. Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations Examples. Although efforts to address this problem has since been advocated and emphasized, little change has been experienced escalating the extents of this problem to other departments such as oncology nursing department. Increased nursing turnover, limited nursing staffs, working for long hours (overworking), lack of management are identified factors contributing to this problem.
Significance to nursing study
According to a qualitative research by Sheppard, K. (2016), “Frequently, nurses with compassion fatigue talk about sleepless nights as they worry about what they forgot to do at work or replay disturbing events in their minds.” This is just a tip of the iceberg of what the nurses experiencing compassion fatigue suffer from. Quantifying research has proven that addressing this problem not only has the potential of attracting more nurses into the workforce, but also improve patient’s outcome in the long run. Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations Examples The important of this study in nursing practice cannot be understated, it’s integral in the practice of nursing to solve the traumatic experiences nurses go through.
Purpose and Research questions
In a research study Compassion Fatigue and Burnout. Clinical journal of oncology nursing, a descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in inpatient nursing units and outpatient clinics in a cancer center in the midwestern United States. If compassion fatigue is identified before worsening, would nurse behavior change? Would patient’s outcome improve? Would the reputation of hospital health care improve? Studying how fast compassion fatigue can be identified in the nurses can appear to make the article a quantitative study, yet the study is conducted in a qualitative manner.
Discussion of method of study
The study by Maytum, Heiman, & Garwick, (2004) is a is a descriptive qualitative pilot research. The study interviewed about twenty experienced nurses working with kids affected by chronic conditions. The study sought to obtain their experiences regarding their daily work and how the work could have affected their personal lives. Compassion fatigue is mostly experienced by nurses working in engaging and busy units such as emergency nursing department and oncology department. The study however, concentrated on interviewing nurses working with children faced with chronic condition. Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations Examples. That would partially provide data establishing the cause and solution to the problem. Diversity of research in more than five departments is required to precisely determine a solution to this problem in today and in the future.
Data collection instrument
The research used standardized measurement tools to conduct qualitative surveys applying three regularly used assessment instruments, Professional Quality of Life Survey (ProQOL-V), The Self-Care Questionnaire, and Maslach Burnout Inventory Human Services Study (MBI-HSS) (Coetzee, & Klopper, 2010). The study employed these instruments to offer a chance for a greater sample size to provide quantifying study. The methods were well applied but most of the instruments used and their results would make this a quantitative research study. Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations Examples.
Theoretical framework
Although most authors outlined different concepts, beliefs and ideas which seemed to support the research, most study diverted from the main objective. For instance, the study by Coetzee, & Klopper (2010) introduced compassion fatigue regarding the study of burnout among health care professionals, but was never explained in this setting; it has since been approved as a substitute for secondary traumatic stress disorder, which is far removed from the original meaning of the term. The research therefore only gave a definition of compassion fatigue in the practice of nursing but never completed the qualitative research highlighting how the problem could be solved among staffs.
Discussion of the study results
The result of the study seemed to answer the researcher’s expectations regarding the causes of compassion fatigues in nursing. The result provided different areas which were highly considered as a contributing factor to nursing burnout and compassion. These areas included the leadership, management, understaffing, communication and coordination environmental and lifestyle and awareness (Coetzee, & Klopper, 2010). The qualitative study completed indicated the failing areas leading to compassion fatigue but never indicated a solution to each that could enhance the nursing field to overcome this problem in the future. Understaffing, lack of communication and coordination are among the leading factors leading to overworked nurses. Also, based on the results of the study, burnout nurses not only recognized as having a developed risk of stress but, also showed clinically significantly minor levels of mental QoL and clinically significantly higher levels of physical QoL (Coetzee, & Klopper, 2010).  Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations Examples. Additionally, 43.6% of nurses experienced <6 hours of sleep per night and thus may be identified as sleep deprived clinicians. Addressing these problems especially in busy and engaging units such as oncology and emergency nursing department is required to address the problem affecting large number of nurses in the country. Findings and implications for nursing practice The findings of the study can be described by increased levels of depression identified in clinicians experiencing compassion fatigue. Understaffing and lack of interdisciplinary coordination are identified as the leading factors escalating the levels of compassion fatigue among health care professionals. Most of these professionals are similarly never compensated for the time they overwork in their department. If the problem is not solved it has high potential affecting the future of nursing practice, yet, the study by Coetzee, & Klopper (2010), offered very few and almost obvious recommendations which are required to overcome this problem. More detailed research and recommendations to the problem are required if the problem is to be completely solved in the future of nursing. Ethical considerations In agreement with FDA regulations, “an IRB are authorized to support, recommend changes in (to secure support), or disapprove biomedical research.” (The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 2017). Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations Examples.  However, the provided research studies do not mention any approval by IRB and the repudiation provided gave the views that don’t essentially indicate the policy of the United States government. The research did not provide evidence of the persons who were interviewed and the associations with certain healthcare organizations such as the Department of Veterans Affairs, was general statistics. Therefore, because of the unspecified and qualitative nature of the research used there is no concern for the ethical considerations of the participants used in the study. Conclusion Compassion fatigue and burnout is an existing problem that affect not only the nurses but, also patient’s outcomes and overall reputation of healthcare. There are different identified factors contributing and perpetuating this problem in the nursing practice. The qualitative research highlighted the problem and general solution required to overcome this problem. However, despite the effort invested in these studies, compassion fatigue remains a challenging problem facing the nursing practice today. More research addressing the problem is required to explicitly provide solution to the problem facing the nurses today. Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations Examples. References Coetzee, S. K., & Klopper, H. C. (2010). Compassion fatigue within nursing practice: A concept analysis. Nursing & health sciences, 12(2), 235-243. Hooper, C., Craig, J., Janvrin, D. R., Wetsel, M. A., & Reimels, E. (2010). Compassion satisfaction, burnout, and compassion fatigue among emergency nurses compared with nurses in other selected inpatient specialties. Journal of emergency nursing, 36(5), 420-427. Maytum, J. C., Heiman, M. B., & Garwick, A. W. (2004). Compassion fatigue and burnout in nurses who work with children with chronic conditions and their families. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 18(4), 171-179 Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations Examples. Nancy Aycock, R. N., & Deborah Boyle, R. N. (2009). Interventions to manage compassion fatigue in oncology nursing. Clinical journal of oncology nursing, 13(2), 183. Petleski, T. A. (2013). Compassion fatigue among emergency department nurses. Gardner-Webb University. Potter, P., Deshields, T., Divanbeigi, J., Berger, J., Cipriano, D., Norris, L., & Olsen, S. (2010). Compassion Fatigue and Burnout. Clinical journal of oncology nursing, 14(5). Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations Examples. Ray, S. L., Wong, C., White, D., & Heaslip, K. (2013). Compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, work life conditions, and burnout among frontline mental health care professionals. Traumatology, 19(4), 255-267. Sheppard, K. (2016). Compassion fatigue: are you at risk? American Nurse Today, 11(1), 53-55. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2017). IDE Institutional Review Boards (IRB). Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/DeviceRegulationandGuidance/HowtoMarketYourDevice/InvestigationalDeviceExemptionIDE/ucm046745.htm Yoder, E. A. (2010). Compassion fatigue in nurses. Applied Nursing Research, 23(4), 191-197. Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations Examples.

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