Streptococcal Pharyngitis NURS 6501 Week 1 Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes

Streptococcal Pharyngitis NURS 6501 Week 1 Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes
Week 1 Discussion: Streptococcal Pharyngitis
Streptococcal Pharyngitis

Streptococcal pharyngitis, also known as Strep throat, is a bacterial infection in the throat. The type of bacteria commonly identified in strep throat is group A streptococcus. It presents with symptoms such as sore throat, dysphagia, white exudate on tonsils, enlarged tonsils, fever, and adenopathy. Streptococcal bacteria are contagious and can spread through airborne droplets. Treatment includes oral antibiotics, acetaminophen, and ibuprofen (Strep throat, 2018).

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It has been found that patients that frequently contract strep throat are correlated with recurrent tonsillitis and a weak immune response to group A streptococcus. Some people are carriers of the Group A strain and there could also be a family history of recurrent streptococcal pharyngitis (Citroner, 2019). Streptococcal Pharyngitis NURS 6501 Week 1 Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes

The patient develops a fever in response to the immune system trying to fight the infection. The streptococcal bacteria caused the sore throat, the reddened posterior pharynx, the white exudate on tonsils that were enlarged, and anterior and posterior adenopathy.

The patient was prescribed an antibiotic called Amoxicillin to treat his strep throat. The physiological response to him taking the antibiotic was swelling of the tongue and lips with difficulty breathing; which is known as an allergic reaction. This response occurred due to the immune system overreacting to the allergen, which was the antibiotic. The body produces antibodies called Immunoglobulin E that travel to cells that release a chemical called histamine that caused the symptoms such as difficulty breathing and swelling of the tongue and lips (Allergies 2018).

The cells that are involved in strep throat include epithelial cells, neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Epithelial cells are one of the first cells that encounter group A streptococcus pyogenes, also known a GAS, during pharyngeal infection. They enact barrier defenses, secretion of antimicrobial peptides, and innate immune signals (Soderholm et al., 2018). Neutrophils begin to multiple and entrap and kill invading bacteria, such as GAS. Macrophages and dendritic cells activate inflammatory signaling pathways and pathogen recognition to fight against GAS infection (Valderrama & Nizet, 2018).

Children age five through fifteen are more likely to get strep throat. Since the bacteria is highly contagious, close contact with other people such as in schools and daycares increases the risk of getting and spreading the infection. Children also don’t cover their mouth and nose when they sneeze or wash their hands frequently, which contributes to spreading the infection (Worried your sore throat may be strep, 2018).

 

References

Allergies. (2018, January 06). Retrieved June 03, 2020, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/allergies/symptoms-causes/syc-20351497

Citroner, G. (2019, February 11). Here’s Why Certain Kids Repeatedly Get Strep Throat. Retrieved June 03, 2020, from https://www.healthline.com/health-news/why-your-kid-keeps-getting-strep-throat

Soderholm, A. T., Barnett, T. C., Korn, O., Rivera-Hernandez, T., Seymour, L. M., Schulz, B. L., . . . Walker, M. J. (2018). Group A Streptococcus M1T1 Intracellular Infection of Primary Tonsil Epithelial Cells Dampens Levels of Secreted IL-8 Through the Action of SpyCEP. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 8. doi:10.3389/fcimb.2018.00160

Strep throat. (2018, September 28). Retrieved June 03, 2020, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/strep-throat/symptoms-causes/syc-20350338

Valderrama, J. A., & Nizet, V. (2018). Group A Streptococcus encounters with host macrophages. Future Microbiology,13(1), 119-134. doi:10.2217/fmb-2017-0142

Worried your sore throat may be strep? (2018, November 01). Retrieved June 03, 2020, from https://www.cdc.gov/groupastrep/diseases-public/strep-throat.html

Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes

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At its core, pathology is the study of disease. Diseases occur for many reasons. But some, such as cystic fibrosis and Parkinson’s Disease, occur because of alterations that prevent cells from functioning normally.

Understanding of signals and symptoms of alterations in cellular processes is a critical step in diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. For the Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN), this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans.

For this Discussion, you examine a case study and explain the disease that is suggested. You examine the symptoms reported and explain the cells that are involved and potential alterations and impacts.

To prepare:

  • By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific scenario for this Discussion. Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.
By Day 3 of Week 1

Post an explanation of the disease highlighted in the scenario you were provided. Include the following in your explanation:

  • The role genetics plays in the disease.
  • Why the patient is presenting with the specific symptoms described.
  • The physiologic response to the stimulus presented in the scenario and why you think this response occurred.
  • The cells that are involved in this process.
  • How another characteristic (e.g., gender, genetics) would change your response.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6 of Week 1

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on 2 different days and respectfully agree or disagree with your colleague’s assessment and explain your reasoning. In your explanation, include why their explanations make physiological sense or why they do not

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit! Streptococcal Pharyngitis NURS 6501 Week 1 Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes

Excellent Good Fair Poor
Main Posting
45 (45%) – 50 (50%)

Answers all parts of the Discussion question(s) with reflective critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources.

Supported by at least three current, credible sources.

Written clearly and concisely with no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.

40 (40%) – 44 (44%)

Responds to the Discussion question(s) and is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

At least 75% of post has exceptional depth and breadth.

Streptococcal Pharyngitis NURS 6501 Week 1 Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes

Supported by at least three credible sources.

Written clearly and concisely with one or no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.

35 (35%) – 39 (39%)

Responds to some of the Discussion question(s).

One or two criteria are not addressed or are superficially addressed.

Is somewhat lacking reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

Somewhat represents knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

Post is cited with two credible sources.

Written somewhat concisely; may contain more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

Contains some APA formatting errors.

(0%) – 34 (34%)

Does not respond to the Discussion question(s) adequately.

Lacks depth or superficially addresses criteria.

Lacks reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

Does not represent knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

Contains only one or no credible sources.

Not written clearly or concisely.

Contains more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

Does not adhere to current APA manual writing rules and style.

Main Post: Timeliness
10 (10%) – 10 (10%)
Posts main post by Day 3.
(0%) – 0 (0%)
N/A
(0%) – 0 (0%)
N/A
(0%) – 0 (0%)
Does not post main post by Day 3.
First Response
17 (17%) – 18 (18%)

Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources.

Demonstrates synthesis and understanding of Learning Objectives.

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Responses to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

15 (15%) – 16 (16%)

Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Responses to faculty questions are answered, if posed.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

13 (13%) – 14 (14%)

Response is on topic and may have some depth.

Responses posted in the Discussion may lack effective professional communication.

Responses to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

Response may lack clear, concise opinions and ideas, and a few or no credible sources are cited.

(0%) – 12 (12%)

Response may not be on topic and lacks depth.

Responses posted in the Discussion lack effective professional communication.

Responses to faculty questions are missing.

No credible sources are cited. Streptococcal Pharyngitis NURS 6501 Week 1 Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes

Second Response
16 (16%) – 17 (17%)

Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources.

Demonstrates synthesis and understanding of Learning Objectives.

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Responses to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

14 (14%) – 15 (15%)

Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Responses to faculty questions are answered, if posed.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

12 (12%) – 13 (13%)

Response is on topic and may have some depth.

Responses posted in the Discussion may lack effective professional communication.

Responses to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

Response may lack clear, concise opinions and ideas, and a few or no credible sources are cited.

(0%) – 11 (11%)

Response may not be on topic and lacks depth.

Responses posted in the Discussion lack effective professional communication.

Responses to faculty questions are missing.

No credible sources are cited.

Streptococcal Pharyngitis NURS 6501 Week 1 Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes

Participation
(5%) – 5 (5%)
Meets requirements for participation by posting on 3 different days.
(0%) – 0 (0%)
N/A
(0%) – 0 (0%)
N/A
(0%) – 0 (0%)
Does not meet requirements for participation by posting on 3 different days.
Total Points: 100

 

Discussion Post 1

The patient is presenting signs consistent with positive symptoms of sore throat or better called streptococcal pharyngitis. This disease condition is caused by group A streptococcus pyrogen. The infection is indicated by elevated temperature of 99.9, redness of the pharynx which may include exudate, tonsils that are enlarged lymph nodes. Other symptoms of strep throat include pain, difficulty swallowing and breathing problems. Streptococcal Pharyngitis NURS 6501 Week 1 Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes

The role genetics plays in the disease: It is important to note that genetics play a very important role in the disease process (Keene, Christiensen, & Stiller, 2018). Variations in the DNA and differences in how the DNA function which includes coding for structural proteins that stimulate the biochemical pathways that lead to disease conditions. In the case of sore throat the genetics involvement in the disease process is not clear. It is possible that some families are more susceptible to this disease than others

Why the patient is presenting with the specific symptoms described: This disease is usually transmitted through contact with infected person. The person described in the scenario is infected with the bacteria which survives in the pharynx of an infected person. The infection is the reason for the symptoms.

The physiologic response to the stimulus presented in the scenario and why you think this response occurred: The human body naturally increase body temperature as an innate immune response to fight the growth of any foreign objects found in the body. The toxins produced by the bacteria released into the bloodstream can lead to systemic immune response. The physiologic response here is because of anaphylactic reaction which can be a form of allergic reaction to amoxicillin. The medication acted as allergen and caused the release of histamines and prostaglandins. The swelling, difficulty breathing and other symptoms are signs of allergic reaction.

The cells that are involved in this process: According to Hammer & Mcphee, (2014) the bacteria pathogen that causes strep throat arrange itself in fragment of red blood cells to avoid detection. It was discovered that Group A Streptococcus (GAS) produces protein named S protein which binds to red blood cells to avoid being destroyed by phagocytic immune cells (Bergamini, 2019)

How another characteristic (e.g., gender, genetics) would change your response: The condition is most common in children 5- 15 years old. Adults suffer from the condition but at much lower rate. There is no evidence at this time to suggest that gender is a risk factor. As per genetics, it is possible that some family lineage can be more vulnerable to certain disease than others. Streptococcal Pharyngitis NURS 6501 Week 1 Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes

 

References

Bergamini, A. (2019). The allergic reaction to carboplatin. Cancer & Chemotherapy

            Reviews14(4), 69–72.

Hammer, G. D. & Mcphee, S. J. (2014). Pathophysiology of Disease: An Introduction to Clinical

            Medicine (7th ed.). New York, NY: Mc Graw Hills

Keene, K., Christiensen, T., & Stiller, J. (2018). From DNA to Proteins. Science Teacher86(1),

35–39. Streptococcal Pharyngitis NURS 6501 Week 1 Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes

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