The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Denmark is $343 Billion in U.S Dollars. It has expanded at an annual rate of 0.20 percent in the last quarter and the GDP of Denmark is 0.55% of the world economy. The country has few natural resources and the industrialised economy depends on imported raw materials and foreign trade. Its standards of living are among the highest in the world.

Q2. What is the total annual energy consumption (PJ) in Denmark and what is its’ percentage of GDP?

The annual energy consumption in Denmark is 810 PJ (petajoules).

(1 petajoule  = 10^15 joules)

Q3.How much energy (TP or PJ) is consumed by the transportation sector in

25 % This is equivalent to 202.5 PJ

Q4. What percentage of the energy supplied to transportation
in Denmark comes from the national resources?

More than 99 percent. This is because Denmark is self sufficient.

Q5.If Denmark is importing oil where does the oil originally come from? List each source as a percentage of the total oil supplied.

Denmark does not import oil.

Q6. Does Denmark have oil supply pipelines and if not explain how oil is delivered.

Yes .There are oil supply pipelines that run all over the country.

Q7. What is the population of Denmark and what is the estimated number of

passenger vehicles per 1000 people.

The population of Denmark is 5,500,510 (July 2009 est.)   The estimated number of passenger vehicles per 1000 people is 359.7

Q8. What is the price of gasoline in Denmark (?/Liter) and how does this compare with prices in other EU countries?

The price of gasoline in Denmark is $5.91 per litre (in US dollars). This is among the highest prices in the European Union with Germany selling at $5.57 per litre, Portugal at $5.35 with Belgium selling at the same price and Italy at $5.96 being one of the highest gasoline prices.

Q9. Does Denmark have oil refineries and if so where are they located?

Denmark has oil refineries. They are Kalundborg Refinery and Fredericia Refinery.

Kalundborg is located off the west coast of the ZealandIsland in Denmark about 75 miles west of Copenhagen and produces 110,000 bbl/d (17,000 m3/d).

Fredericia is located at Fredericia in Denmark. The  refinery produces 68,000 bbl/d (10,800 m3/d)

Q10. Show your calculation to estimate the total CO2

emissions from the transport sector in Denmark. Assume 1 liter of
petrol emits 2.3kg of CO2 (1 UK gallon emits 10.4kg and 1 US gallon
emits 8.7kg).

Petrol consumption is 13,651 barrels per day.

1 year petrol consumption is 13651*365 = 4,982,980 barrels

1 barrel = 117.34 litres

Total petrol consumption in litres is 4,982,980 barrels * 117.34 = 584,702,873.2 litres

Total emissions are 584,702,873.2 litres * 2.3 = 1,344,816,608.36 kgs of CO2 annually

This is equivalent to 3,684,429.064 kgs of CO2 daily

Q11. Estimate the total number of cars in Kosovo and,

stating an assumed average annual total mileage travelled, show your
calculation of the total estimated CO2 emissions from Kosovo’s
transportation sector (metric tons). Use maximum and minimum values
for your estimates of total vehicles and total distance travelled and
complete the table below: Tons CO2 per year Minimum Vehicles Maximum
Vehicles Minimum Distance/ Year Maximum Distance/ Year

Emission by one car                                       170 g/km

170g                                    1 km

?                                        19200 km

170g  x 19200 = 32,640,000 g for one car

32,640,000 x 215,000 =7,017,800,000,000 g.

Q12.If Kosovo consumes 6 Million tons of lignite coal each year for power generation

estimate the total CO2 emissions from generating electricity (Wyoming
lignite emits 215lb CO2 per MBtu) and compare this amount with the CO2
emissions from Kosovo’s transportation sector (ie use numbers from
Question 11).

Q13. Give two examples of the levels of CO2 emissions (gram/km) from European cars.

Fiat has an emission of 127.8 gram/kg and it was in the 1st  position  of the cars that emitted the least amount of CO2 in 2008 report.

Mercedes has an emission of 176.4 gram/kg and it was in the 10th position of the cars that emitted the least amount of CO2 in 2008 report.

Q14. List your two top concerns about energy consumption in Kosovo’s transportation sector.

1)      Environmental pollution

About 90% of all energy used by the transport sector in Kosovo is spent by the road transport. This is because the railway is to slow and the air transport is too expensive for ordinary citizens. The major form of energy consumed by cars is petroleum. Road transport results in release of carbon emissions to the atmosphere and they are known to be number one causes of global warming. Other gases such as sulphur dioxide released by the vehicles are irritants and are known to cause health problems. Heavy metals eg lead released during combustion also cause health risks

2) Slow economic growth

Kosovo is spending billions of dollars each year to buy petroleum used in roads. If the country had some renewable energy sources it would spend less on energy and invest in other projects. Kosovo has a poor road network and therefore the amount of energy spent ie fuel is almost double and hence uneconomical.

Q15.What existing or future policies exist to address your concerns in Q14.

Kosovo has a plan to invest heavily in a modern railway system that is more efficient and faster. The modern railway system is set to be more environmental friendly hence releasing fewer poisonous gases to the atmosphere.

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