Assignment Requirements

Week 3 D1
Toulmin Analysis of an Essay
After reviewing the Toulmin Analysis document, closely read the “Sample Persuasive Paper” in the Ashford Writing Center and submit a Toulmin analysis of the paper. Your initial post should make specific references to the sample persuasive paper and break down the argument by distinct segments described in the Toulmin Analysis document (claim, evidence, warrant, etc).

Your initial post must be 200 to 300 words in length, and is due by Day 3. You are required to respond to at least two of your classmates by Day 7 in at least 125 to 200 words per response. Comment on your classmates’ posts by responding to their use of the Toulmin analysis. Does the analysis include all of the required segments? If so, explain how. If not, offer instructions for more effective use of this analytical method.

Week Three D2
My Topic is
1. Some educators and parents have expressed doubts about the benefits the No Child Left
Behind Act (NCLBA). Write a well-researched paper defending or rejecting No Child Left Behind.

Writing Your Conclusion
Create a conclusion that summarizes your thesis statement, your main point, and reiterates the position of your paper. Your conclusion must consist of a closing argument, a paper summary, and a rephrased thesis statement. In addition, note any questions you may have regarding your thesis statement, topic sentences, or conclusion so your classmates can assist you. Share your conclusion paragraph and questions by posting them to the discussion forum by Day 3.

Your initial post must be 200 to 300 words in length, and is due by Day 3. You are required to respond to at least two of your classmates by Day 7 in at least 125 to 200 words per response. Please also assist your classmates with their questions and concerns. It is not necessary to point out typos or spelling errors. Be open and honest with classmates as you help them improve their work

No Child Left Behind Act
Ernest Parham
English 122
Professor Cousar
Ashford University
5/19/2014

No Child Left Behind Act
This paper endeavors to explore the topic No Child Left Behind Act with a view to defend its benefits. Taking into consideration that some educators as well as parents have continued to express reservations concerning the benefits of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLBA), it is imperative to explore and understand the context in which NCLBA is pivotal in serving the American child. According to Dee and Jacob (2011), the NCLB Act obligated states to devise systems that focus on school accountability derived from student assessments on annual basis. The upshot of this federal legislation regarding the student achievement distribution has as result continued to be an increasingly contentious but centrally pertinent issue. In defense of the NCLB Act, it is important to take into consideration Dee and Jacob’s studies concerning NCLBA’s impact on the contemporary American education system. Through the use of a comparative interrupted time series analysis that incorporates evaluations of the test-score variations in schools across states which already practiced accountability policies before NCLB and schools did not practice accountability policies, the results point out that NCLB produced statistically important increases in regard to the average performance in math among fourth graders. This is in addition to progress at the lower, as well as top percentiles. Dee and Jacob’s studies also demonstrated evidence of progress in math among eighth graders, mainly among customarily low-achieving clusters, as well as the lower percentiles. Beneridge (2009) argues that, there is need for diverse policy reforms in the NCLBA attributable to the regime change from its inception to the present day. In order to sustain the NCLBA there is need for financial, as well as policy changes in regards to the learning of English language arts (ELA), and math in the core curriculum.
However, it is also essential to appreciate that the NCLBA requires a few reforms in regard to its original demands. According to Hanna (2013), it is evident that the U.S. Department of Education is introducing new waivers on the NCLBA, where states are currently putting into practice the new Common Core State Standards with a view to advance the learning of English language arts (ELA), as well as math. These Common Core State Standards are instituting increasingly significant approaches towards evaluating teachers, in addition to supporting their progression. The Common Core Standards State Standards are informed by the shortfalls in the NCLBA. According to Duncombe, Lukemeyer, and Yinger (2008), in an analysis that was carried out for Missouri and Kansas, the study demonstrates that new funding from the federal government is adequate towards supporting significantly low standards in regard to student performance. On the other hand, the federal funding cannot adequately fund high standards devoid of implausibly substantial improvements in regard to school-district efficiency. In this view, in order to realize the core objectives of the NCLBA, there is need for reforms that it will support high standards. Considering that the core objective of the NCLBA was to ensure that every student in America gets the opportunity to acquire high-quality education, in addition to attaining proficiency on demanding academic standards, it is imperative to support any reforms that would facilitate this objective.
Conclusion
This paper has demonstrated that, it is necessary to support the NCLBA taking into consideration NCLBA’s core objective was to guarantee that each student in America gets the chance to acquire high-quality education, in addition to attaining proficiency on demanding academic standards, it is imperative to support any reforms that would facilitate this objective. Reforms on the NCLBA would afford states with new opportunities to put into operation imperative education reforms for instance more meaningful evaluation of teachers, increasing students’ learning time, in addition to setting higher standards in regard to English and math learning.

References
Beneridge, T. (2009). No Child Left Behind and Fine Arts Classes. Arts Education Policy Review journal, 111(1), 4-7.
Dee, T., & Jacob, B. (2011). The Impact of No Child Left Behind on Student Achievement.
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 30(3), 418-446.
Duncombe, W., Lukemeyer, A., & Yinger, J. (2008). The No Child Left Behind Act: Have
Federal Funds Been Left Behind? The Public Finance Review journal, 36(4), 381-407.
Hanna, R. (2013). 5 Ways No Child Left Behind Waivers Help State Education Reform.
Retrieved from

Annotated Bibliography: No Child Left Behind Act
Ernest Parham
English 122
Professor Cousar
Ashford University
05/12/2014

Annotated bibliography: No Child Left Behind Act
Beneridge, T. (2009). No Child Left Behind and Fine Arts Classes. Arts Education Policy Review journal, 111(1), 4-7.
This article discusses on the various changes to the enactment of the no child left behind policy in line with the change of regime from the Bush to the Obama regime. It establishes on the policy and financial changes that the Obama administration will make in regards to nontested subjects such as music and arts in the general curriculum.
Contributive information on the future state of the act is established through this article. This enables for the establishment of the trends in the past, current, and future trends and effect of the act in the education system. Additionally, it supports the topic of the effect of the act on nontested subjects; such as music and arts, in the general curriculum.
Dean Ho, A. (2008). The Problem With “Proficiency”: Limitations of Statistics and Policy Under No Child Left Behind. The Education and Educational Research journal, 37(6), 351-360.
This article establishes on the ambiguous nature of the statistics on the percentage of proficient students under the no child left behind act. The author goes to show how this has substantive limitations in policy establishments and in effecting redistribution change. The author proposes on the application of the growth model pilot program as a corrective measure.
This article upgrades the paper in providing vital information on the efficiency of the statistics on the percentage of proficient students under the no child left behind act. It contributes to the topic of the various programs applicable in the establishment of better efficiency in this PPS and the consequential impacts.
Dee, T. and Jacob, B. (2011). The impact of no Child Left Behind on student achievement. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 30(3), 418-446.
This article establishes on the no child left behind act on students’ achievements. This is based on the fact that the act mandates institutions to design systems of accountability based on students’ achievements progress. It establishes that the act effects an improvement in the academic performances; particularly in math, of fourth and eighth graders.
This article gives a view of the general effect on student’s performances that the act has had over time. This information supports the topic sentence of the effect the act on students’ academic performance trends over time. Through this article, the paper will be able to validate the effect of the no child left behind act on academic performance thus judging on its success.
Duncombe, W. et.al. (2008). The No Child Left Behind Act: Have Federal Funds Been Left Behind? The Public Finance Review journal, 36(4), 381-407.
This article investigates on the funding of the no child left behind act in relation to requirements imposed on education institutions and the performance standards affected. It provides an estimate of the education cost function, estimates the spending requirements for the support of the act’s implementation, and compares this estimate with the available funding for the act. It establishes that the act’s funding is low thus effecting fierce requirements and penalties for institutions’ performance. Consequently, such institutions set low standards to escape such penalties.
This article is vital for the paper in that it provides a view of the nature and impact of the funding availability for the act. This will support the topic of the funding requirements and availability of the act, and the consequent impacts.
Krieg, J, (2008). Are Students Left Behind? The Distributional Effects of the No Child Left Behind Act. American Education Finance Association, 3(2), 250-281.
This article establishes on the adverse effect of the sanctions imposed against schools performing under the established statewide pass rate by the no child left behind act. It establishes that the effecting of this sanction on school is creating institutional strategies of concentrating on marginal students rather than those tailing. This is in effect of raising performances above the set pass rate, but adversely affects the tailing students.
The inclusion of this article on the paper is to establish on the impact of the pass rate impositions of the schools. It establishes on the topic of the effect of these impositions on different students performances. Does the attainment of the pass rate equally translate to all student?

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