Assignment Requirements: Thesis
I would like to get a structure page on sunday 25th for my profosser to approve the outline of the these and if get any comments will send it to you.
however, he requested as well a first draft that must be submitted on july 2014.
then I have to submit the final draft on September.
you will find attached all the required paper related to the project attached.
• Research is an art of scientific investigation. It could be considered as a movement from the known to the unknown .
• Research methodology is a way to solve the research problem. In it we will study the various steps that are generally adopted by a researcher in studying his research problem along with the logic behind them.
Research and Scientific Method
Research and scientific method are closely related. The scientific method is based on the following postulates:
1- It relies on empirical evidence (facts, observation)
2-It utilizes relevant concepts
3-It’s free from personal bias (it should be based on objective considerations)
4-It presupposes ethical neutrality
5- It implies demonstrable qualities of a phenomenon capable of being verified
6-It proceeds in an orderly manner
7- It aims at formulating most general axioms (scientific theories)
1- Formulating the research question;
2-Review of the literature;
3-Developing the hypothesis;
4-Preparing the research design;
5-Collecting the data;
6-Analysis of data and hypothesis testing;
7-Interpretation and preparation of the report or presentation of the results, i.e., formal write-up of conclusions reached.
1) The Research Question:
• “All progress is born of inquiry. Doubt is often better than overconfidence, for it leads to inquiry, and inquiry leads to invention” Hudson Maxim ((US inventor)
→Ex: Newton and the apple:
• Newton was drinking tea as the British often do, and he observed an apple falling from a tree. He deduced then that the same force which caused the apple to fall to the ground causes the moon to orbit the earth
→At this stage, you should identify the problem you want to study. You must decide the general area of interest or aspect of a subject-matter that you would like to inquire into.
• The formulation of a general topic into a specific research problem, thus, constitutes the first step in a scientific enquiry. Two steps are involved in formulating the research problem: understanding the problem and rephrasing it into meaningful terms from an analytical point of view.
→The best way of understanding the problem is to discuss it with experts in the matter or your colleagues.
→Secondly, you can also examine the available literature regarding your topic to know more about the subject (not only the conceptual but also the empirical literature). This will help you to put the problem in as specific terms as possible.
2) Literature review:
•At this point, you should undertake extensive literature survey connected with the question of research.
→One source will lead to another.
→The earlier studies on the topic should be studied carefully.
→A good library would be helpful at this regard.
3) The hypothesis:
Once you has developed the research question, the next step is to state clearly your hypothesis or hypotheses – i.e. to propose an explanation for the phenomenon you’re interested in.
The role of the hypothesis is to guide you by delimitating the area of research and keep you on the right track.
> Discussions with experts about the problem, examination of data, reviews of similar studies and investigations (through field interviews) will help you define and develop your hypothesis.
• Proposing an explanation involves also identifying other phenomena that we think will help us in our research and clarify relationships between these phenomena.
→A dependant variable is thought to be caused or to be a function of a independent variable.
Ex: If your hypothesis is that income may be explained by education, then Years of education = in dependant variable and Income = dependant variable.
4) The Research Design
• A research design is a plan that shows how a researcher intend to study an empirical question. It indicates what theory or
proposition will be tested, what the appropriate “units of analysis” are for the tests and how the information will be collected.
→So in the research design, you will have to state the conceptual structure within which research would be conducted.
The preparation of the research design involves the following:
1-The means of obtaining the information;
2-Explanation of the way in which selected means of obtaining information will be organized and why.
5) Collect the data:
There are several ways of collecting the data:
→By observation (the collection of information by your own observation, without interviewing)
→Through personal interview
→By mailing of questionnaires
6) Analysis of data and hypothesis testing:
→After the data being collected, you can start analyzing them.
→The next step is then to test the hypotheses.
Do the facts support the hypotheses or they happen to be contrary?
7) Interpretation and preparation of the report:
If a hypothesis is tested several times, it may be possible for the researcher to arrive to generalization (build a theory).
→If you have no hypothesis to start with, you might seek to explain your findings on the basis of some theory (it’s
→The report: it should include the preliminary pages, the main text and the end. It should he written in a concise language.
Criteria of a good research:
• The purpose of the research should be clearly defined
• The student should report flaws in procedural design and estimate their effects upon the findings
• Conclusions should be confined to those justified by the data
of the research.
To sum up,
→A good research is systematic (structured with steps), logical, empirical and replicable (we should be able to verify it).
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