Use of Prostate-Specific Antigen Test in Healthcare Essay

Use of Prostate-Specific Antigen Test in Healthcare Essay

The Use of Prostate-Specific Antigen Test in Healthcare

Introduction

Various diagnostic tests are performed by healthcare personnel to confirm or determine a disease’s presence in patients suspected to have it. Diagnostic tests protect patients by finding potential health problems in their early stages of development that are easily treatable and prevent health complications that result from the later stages of disease development. Also, diagnostic tests help patients minimize their healthcare spending by finding potential ailments sooner, which can be treated under minimal costs. Some of the diseases whose negative impact can be considerably reduced if identified in their early development stages include various forms of cancer. Prostate cancer is the second most common type of cancer among men in the world. Use of Prostate-Specific Antigen Test in Healthcare Essay Screening performed using the Prostate-Specific Antigen Test is used to detect prostate cancer at an early stage where treatment can efficiently intervene and reduce mortality among male patients. This purpose of this paper is to describe how the Prostate-Specific Antigen test is used in healthcare.

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The Purpose of the Prostate-Specific Antigen Test

The Prostate-Specific Antigen Test is primarily used to confirm prostate cancer in men in its early stages of development. The Test is used to measure the amount of Prostate-Specific Antigens [PSA] in the blood. PSA refers to proteins made by normal and malignant tissues of the prostate gland. High levels of Protein-Specific Antigens in the blood may suggest the presence of prostate cancer (Tikkinen et al., 2018). Prostate-Specific Antigen tests can also be used to identify other prostate gland problems, including inflammation and enlargement of the prostate. Besides, Prostate-Specific Antigen tests can be used to monitor prostate cancer treatment and find out whether the disease is under control or reoccurring (Lawrenson, et al., 2015). Prostate cancer is usually treated through radiation, surgery, chemotherapy, and hormone therapy. These treatments make the amounts of protein-specific Antigens circulating in the bloodstream significantly. Physicians perform regular testing to determine the level of Protein-Specific Antigens circulating in the bloodstream to determine whether cancer has reoccurred. If the disease reoccurs, additional screening using protein-specific Antigen tests are performed to make recommendations that will aid in the additional treatment and control of the disease. Use of Prostate-Specific Antigen Test in Healthcare Essay

How the Test is conducted

The Prostate-Specific Antigen test is performed by removing some blood from the patient, usually from the arm. The blood samples are then taken to the laboratory to determine the amount of PSA in the blood. The diagnostic test results may take several days, such as one week, before the results come out. Healthcare personnel reports the Test results as the ratio of nanograms of PSA per milliliters of blood [ng/ml]. Even though Prostate-Specific Antigen tests are used to screen for prostate cancer, their results cannot indicate an absolute confirmation of prostate cancer’s presence or absence (Ilic et al., 2018). Consequently, male patients who have high PSA amounts are required to undertake a prostate biopsy to make the absolute confirmation for prostate cancer. Prostate biopsy refers to the procedure of removing small samples of prostate tissues and observing them using a microscope to confirm whether the patient has or lacks prostate cancer. If it is confirmed the patient has prostate cancer, the biopsy also reveals the likelihood of the cancer growing and spreading rapidly.

Reliability and Validity

The use of PSA tests to perform prostate cancer screenings is not highly reliable or valid. Even though most people with prostate cancer have high PSA levels in their bloodstream, other non-malignant conditions might also contribute to the increase in the levels of PSA. Consequently, the PSA test does not provide precise information concerning prostate cancer disease in individuals. At best, using PSA tests to perform prostate cancer screenings results in a small reduction in the mortality risks caused by prostate cancer. Screening using PSA tests might help people detect prostate cancer in the early stages of development. The diagnosis of cancer at an early stage might make it easy to treat and cure, unlike in the later developed stages of the disease. However, prostate cancer screening using PSA tests does not affect the disease’s overall mortality rates (Martin et al., 2018). Prostate cancer develops slowly over many years. Consequently, people may have prostate cancer that does not reveal any symptoms or cause health problems during their lifetimes.

Also, the harms of conducting prostate cancer screenings using PSA tests outweigh the benefits. Male patients who partake PSA tests for prostate cancer screenings risk getting over-diagnosed and over-treated (Ilic et al., 2018). Patients might be over-diagnosed when the PSA tests detect tumors that lack symptoms during their lifetime. Due to over-diagnosis, these harmless tumors might be subjected to various cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation. These treatments have accompanying complications and harmful side effects, including pain, incontinence, bleeding, infections, and erectile dysfunction. Use of Prostate-Specific Antigen Test in Healthcare Essay. Again, PSA tests can make some people experience negative psychological effects. For instance, people with high PSA levels in their blood might suffer from anxiety and distress if they conduct biopsy tests that fail to confirm the presence of prostate cancer (Biddle et al., 2017). Besides, some patients might experience anxiety because of knowing they have slow-growing tumors even though they are harmless.

Conclusion

In conclusion, PSA tests are used to perform prostate cancer screenings and enable early detection of the disease. The early detection of prostate cancer makes it easy for the disease to be treated and eliminate more healthcare spending that might have taken place in the later developed stages. PSA tests can also detect other prostate gland related problems such as inflammation and enlargement. Besides, PSA tests are used to monitor the treatment and recurrence of prostate cancer. The PSA tests are conducted by removing blood, especially from the arm of the patients. The blood samples are tested in the labs for about one week. The results reveal PSA’s level in the blood and are used to indicate whether the patient might have prostate cancer. Since the PSA tests are not precise, further tests such as a prostate biopsy to confirm the presence of the disease. The PSA tests are not reliable in reducing the overall mortality rates of people having prostate cancer. At best, they help people detect cancerous tumors’ growth at an early stage, enabling them to get interventional treatment. However, these tumors grow at a slow rate and might lack to show any symptoms. Besides, these tumors might be harmless and fail to affect the patients in their lifetime. The PSA tests might result in more harm than good by over-diagnosing and over-treating patients, making them experience harmful side effects and complications such as erectile dysfunctions, infections, and pain. Use of Prostate-Specific Antigen Test in Healthcare Essay.

 

References

Biddle, C., Brasel, A., Underwood III, W., & Orom, H. (2017). Experiences of uncertainty in men with an elevated PSA. American journal of men’s health11(1), 24-34.

Ilic, D., Djulbegovic, M., Jung, J. H., Hwang, E. C., Zhou, Q., Cleves, A., & Dahm, P. (2018). Prostate cancer screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test: a systematic review and meta-analysis. bmj362, k3519.

Lawrenson, R., Lao, C., Obertová, Z., Brown, C., Holmes, M., Tyrie, L., … & Laking, G. (2015). Management and characteristics of patients with metastatic prostate cancer in a cohort of New Zealand men. Oncology88(3), 157-163.

Martin, R. M., Donovan, J. L., Turner, E. L., Metcalfe, C., Young, G. J., Walsh, E. I., … & Sterne, J. A. (2018). Effect of a low-intensity PSA-based screening intervention on prostate cancer mortality: the CAP randomized clinical trial. Jama319(9), 883-895.

Tikkinen, K. A., Dahm, P., Lytvyn, L., Heen, A. F., Vernooij, R. W., Siemieniuk, R. A., … & Junod, N. (2018). Prostate cancer screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test: a clinical practice guideline. Bmj362, k3581. Use of Prostate-Specific Antigen Test in Healthcare Essay 

 

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Assignment 1: Case Study Assignment: Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children

When seeking to identify a patient’s health condition, advanced practice nurses can use a diverse selection of diagnostic tests and assessment tools; however, different factors affect the validity and reliability of the results produced by these tests or tools. Nurses must be aware of these factors in order to select the most appropriate test or tool and to accurately interpret the results. Use of Prostate-Specific Antigen Test in Healthcare Essay

Not only do these diagnostic tests affect adults, body measurements can provide a general picture of whether a child is receiving adequate nutrition or is at risk for health issues. These data, however, are just one aspect to be considered. Lifestyle, family history, and culture—among other factors—are also relevant. That said, gathering and communicating this information can be a delicate process.

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For this Assignment, you will consider the validity and reliability of different assessment tools and diagnostic tests. You will explore issues such as sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. You will also consider examples of children with various weight issues. You will explore how you could effectively gather information and encourage parents and caregivers to be proactive about their children’s health and weight.

To Prepare

  • Review this week’s Learning Resources and consider factors that impact the validity and reliability of various assessment tools and diagnostic tests. You also will review examples of pediatric patients and their families as it relates to BMI.
  • By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to one of the following Assignment options by your Instructor: Adult Assessment Tools or Diagnostic Tests (option 1), or Child Health Case (Option 2). Note: Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignments from your Instructor.
  • Search the Walden Library and credible sources for resources explaining the tool or test you were assigned. What is its purpose, how is it conducted, and what information does it gather?
  • Also, as you search the Walden library and credible sources, consider what the literature discusses regarding the validity, reliability, sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, ethical dilemmas, and controversies related to the test or tool.
  • If you are assigned Assignment Option 2 (Child), consider what health issues and risks may be relevant to the child in the health example.
    • Based on the risks you identified, consider what further information you would need to gain a full understanding of the child’s health. Think about how you could gather this information in a sensitive fashion.
    • Consider how you could encourage parents or caregivers to be proactive toward the child’s health.

The Assignment

Assignment (3–4 pages, not including title and reference pages):

Assignment Option 1: Adult Assessment Tools or Diagnostic Tests:
Include the following:

  • A description of how the assessment tool or diagnostic test you were assigned is used in healthcare.
    • What is its purpose?
    • How is it conducted?
    • What information does it gather?
  • Based on your research, evaluate the test or the tool’s validity and reliability, and explain any issues with sensitivity, reliability, and predictive values. Include references in appropriate APA formatting.

Assignment Option 2: Child Health Case:
Include the following:

  • An explanation of the health issues and risks that are relevant to the child you were assigned.
  • Describe additional information you would need in order to further assess his or her weight-related health.
  • Identify and describe any risks and consider what further information you would need to gain a full understanding of the child’s health. Think about how you could gather this information in a sensitive fashion.
  • Taking into account the parents’ and caregivers’ potential sensitivities, list at least three specific questions you would ask about the child to gather more information.
  • Provide at least two strategies you could employ to encourage the parents or caregivers to be proactive about their child’s health and weight.
By Day 6 of Week 3

Submit your Assignment.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK3Assgn1+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Week 3 Assignment 1 Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Week 3 Assignment 1 link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK3Assgn1+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.

 

Excellent Good Fair Poor
In 3–4 pages, address the following: 

A description of how the assessment tool or diagnostic test you were assigned is used in healthcare.
o What is its purpose?
o How is it conducted?
o What information does it gather?

30 (30%) – 35 (35%)
The response clearly, accurately, and with specific detail describes how the assessment tool or diagnostic test assigned is used in healthcare, including its purpose, how it is conducted, and what information it gathers.
24 (24%) – 29 (29%)
The response accurately describes how the assessment tool or diagnostic test assigned is used in healthcare, including its purpose, how it is conducted, and what information it gathers.
18 (18%) – 23 (23%)
The response vaguely and/or with some inaccuracy describes how the assessment tool or diagnostic test assigned is used in healthcare, including its purpose, how it is conducted, and what information it gathers.
(0%) – 17 (17%)
The response is inaccurate or missing descriptions of how the assessment tool or diagnostic test assigned is used in healthcare, including its purpose, how it is conducted, and what information it gathers.
Based on your research, evaluate the test or the tool’s validity and reliability, and explain any issues with sensitivity, reliability, and predictive values.
45 (45%) – 50 (50%)
The response accurately and thoroughly evaluates the test or tool’s validity and reliability, and explains any issues with clear sensitivity, reliability, and predictive values. Student’s research is clear, accurate, and appropriate for the evaluation.
39 (39%) – 44 (44%)
The response accurately evaluates the test or tool’s validity and reliability, and explains any issues with sensitivity, reliability, and predictive values. Student’s research is somewhat clear, accurate,and appropriate for the evaluation.
33 (33%) – 38 (38%)
The response vaguely and/or with some inaccuracy evaluates the test or tool’s validity and reliability, and explains any issues with some sensitivity, reliability, and predictive values. Student’s research is vague or inaccurate for the evaluation.
(0%) – 32 (32%)
“The response is inaccurate and/or missing evaluations of the test or tool’s validity and reliability, with explanations of any issues missing or lacking sensitivity, reliability, and predictive values. Student’s research is missing, inaccurate, or lacking for the evaluation.
Written Expression and Formatting – Paragraph Development and Organization:
Paragraphs make clear points that support well-developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are carefully focused–neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance. A clear and comprehensive purpose statement and introduction are provided that delineate all required criteria.
(5%) – 5 (5%)
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity. A clear and comprehensive purpose statement, introduction, and conclusion are provided that delineate all required criteria.
(4%) – 4 (4%)
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 80% of the time. Purpose, introduction, and conclusion of the assignment are stated, yet are brief and not descriptive.
Use of Prostate-Specific Antigen Test in Healthcare Essay
(3%) – 3 (3%)
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 60%–79% of the time. Purpose, introduction, and conclusion of the assignment are vague or off topic.
(0%) – 2 (2%)
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity < 60% of the time. No purpose statement, introduction, or conclusion were provided.
Written Expression and Formatting – English writing standards:
Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation
(5%) – 5 (5%)
Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors.
(4%) – 4 (4%)
Contains a few (1 or 2) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.
(3%) – 3 (3%)
Contains several (3 or 4) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.
(0%) – 2 (2%)
Contains many (≥ 5) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors that interfere with the reader’s understanding.
Written Expression and Formatting – The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers, running heads, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list.
(5%) – 5 (5%)
Uses correct APA format with no errors.
(4%) – 4 (4%)
Contains a few (1 or 2) APA format errors.
(3%) – 3 (3%)
Contains several (3 or 4) APA format errors.
(0%) – 2 (2%)
Contains many (≥ 5) APA format errors.
Use of Prostate-Specific Antigen Test in Healthcare Essay
Total Points: 100

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